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Diversity and Development Katie Willis - Theories and Practices of Development
Terms in this set (32)
in economic terms modernity encompasses industrialization, urbanization and the increased use of technology. For some the diffusion of modernity is interpreted as development, progress, others it is associated with the eradication of cultural practices, the destruction of natural environments and a decline in the quality of life.
measuring development is hard, how to measure 'basic needs'. Development measures are almost always quantitative, not qualitative (experience, feelings, opinions).
the political control of other peoples and territories by foreign states. Changed
political and economic systems, social structures and cultural norms in many places.
Expansion of western influence had widespread and long standing effects. Colonies became
in 18 th /19 th century important for raw materials and markets, because of industrial expansion.
Gross national product: value of all goods and services claimed by residents
Gross national income:
Gross domestic product: value of all goods and services produced in a country
Human development index: economic + other indicators of well-being: long healthy life, education and knowledge, decent standard of living
inequality within a country. 0 = perfect equality, 1 = perfect inequality
Multidimensional poverty index: measure household poverty by health, education and living standards
increasing interconnectednes between different parts of the world, physical distance feeling like less
concentrate on producing and then selling the goods that they had an advantage in producing because of their assets, such as land, mineral resource, labour, technical or scientific expertise. This meant a global division of labour. - Ricardo
Keynes argued that the key to growth was real investment,
i.e. investment in new (rather than replacement) infrastructure projects. This investment, he claimed, would have a positive effect on job creation and the further generation of wealth, through the multiplier effect.
Criticism: This effect could, however, also work in
reverse, so that declining levels of real investment would lead to a downward spiral into
IMF (International Monetary Fund)
The aim of the IMF is to maintain currency stability and develop world trade. It does this largely through the provision of support and advice to countries in difficulty. For example, the IMF has been a key institution in the attempts to achieve economic stability after the debt crises of the 1980s and 1990s.
-Bretton Woods institutions
World Bank Group
The term World Bank is usually used to imply one organization,
but in fact there are five agencies within the World Bank Group.
-Bretton Woods institutions
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD).
Its original aim was to assist in the rebuilding and development of Europe, but following the success of the Marshall Plan (see Box 2.2) the attention of the organization turned to the poorer regions of the world. The IBRD provides loans to national governments at below commercial interest rates.
- Bretton Woods Institution
International Development Association (IDA).
For the very poorest nations, even interest rates below commercial levels are too high. The IDA was set up in 1960 and provides interest-free loans to the world's 80 poorest countries. Countries have to pay some administration costs, but the IDA provides access to finance that would otherwise be unavailable.
(1) Traditional Society:
(2) Pre Conditions to Take Off:
(3) Take Off Stage:
(4) Drive to Maturity Stage:
(5) Age of High Mass Consumption Stage:
Structural Adjustment Programmes
are aimed at reducing the role of the state in the running of the national economy. This does not mean that the state is no longer involved, but rather that the market is given much greater power. SAPs usually include two categories of policies which can be classified as stabilization measures and adjustment measures.
According to the dependency theorists, Latin America's development situation was a result of capitalist development, just as industrialization in the North was a result of this process. the core industrialized countries were experiencing growth and economic development through the exploitation of the non industrialized peripheral countries.
Broadly it covers activities and organizations that are separate from the state and from the market, but the debates rage about the precise boundaries.
is the idea of social relations between individuals and groups. These relations are based on trust and there are expectations regarding how you should behave in these social interactions.
The World Bank's definition of 'social capital' is 'the informal
rules, norms and long-term relationships that facilitate co-ordinated action and enable people
to undertake co-operative ventures for mutual advantage'.
development which takes into account the need to maintain ethnic diversity as development
the natural environment acts not just as an obstacle, but actually shapes the nature of human society and activity. According to environmental determinists, human behaviour was conditioned or determined by the physical environment. People used these theories to justify European dominance.
projects which really get to grips with the concept of minimizing the
environmental impacts of tourism need to look at limiting numbers to control pressure on resources, what form of accommodation is provided and where it is located, and the sourcing of building materials, food and other inputs.
New international division of labour
This refers to the shift from manufacturing in Northern countries to industrial production in the South where land and labour costs are cheaper.
The WTO has been criticized for being too influenced by the views of Northern countries at the expense of those of the South, despite the numerical dominance of Southern nations.
trade within wihich attention is paid to environmental issues, human rights concerns, animal welfare and other social issues.
when there are no obstacles for free movement of services and goods
provides disadvantaged producers with acces to markets and a fair price for their goods
certification system that ensures producers are paid a fair price for their goods a premium is also paid for community projects
Transnational processes refer to sustained activities backwards and forwards across national borders. Governments of countries with large amounts of out-migration have increasingly realized the importance of using the possibilities of transnationalism to enable migrants to contribute to national development through remittances.
1) development they critisize is a caricature of the diversity of development approaches today
2) accused of making substantial criticisms of current policies and theories without providing details of possible alternatives (other than grassroot communities)
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