Regulates what goes in and out of the cell (like a security guard) keep good stuff in and bad stuff out. Also controls what the cell is secreting (can be good primary made up of water like most cells 50-90%)
What is cytosol basically?
Cytoplasm and contains other things as well
What are chromosomes basically?
Tells genes how to function. Carry genes prokaryote has 1 in the shape of a ring
What are ribosomes basically?
What shapes are prokaryotes typically?
What is more complex a eukaryote or a prokaryote?
What are eukaryotes characterized by having (3)?
1. DNA in a nucleus that is bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope 2. Membrane-bound organelles 3. Cytoplasm in the region between the plasma membrane and nucleus
What are nucleotides?
Where all the DNA is and is free floating in the cytoplasm, does not have anything holding it together
What are membrane-bound organelles?
Not present in prokaryotes (includes nucleus--not bound by a membrane)
What do a cell's internal membranes do?
Partition the cell into organelles. Is a little organ, is specialized structure that does a specialized function. Elle = means smaller
What is the nucleus?
Information central. Contains most of the cell's genes and is usually the most conspicuous organelle
What do plant cells have that animal cells don't (2)?
Central vacuole (where plant stores things like excess water and starch). Cell wall (creates a fixed volume and prevents from putting too much water into there--makes a rigid structure that does not allow for much movement)
What is chromatin?
What happens in the nucleolus?
Ribosomes are being made. Ribosomes make proteins
What does the nuclear envelope consist of?
Inner membrane and outer membrane
What do you not want to damage in the cell?
Plasma membrane (would no longer separate in from out) and DNA (in nuclear envelope)
What do ribosomes do?
Protein factories. They read DNA and make proteins
Which cells are ribosomes found in?
Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes
What are ribosomes made of?
Ribosomal RNA and protein
What two locations do ribosomes carry out protein synthesis in?
The cytosol (free ribosomes) proteins that stay within the cell. On the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or the nuclear envelope (bound ribosomes) proteins that are bound/attached to something (endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelope). Only difference is their locations
What does the endomembrane system do?
Regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell
What are the components of the endomembrane system (6)?
1. nuclear envelope 2. endoplasmic reticulum 3. golgi apparatus 4. lysosomes 5. vacuoles 6. plasma membrane Collection of organelles that are connected to each other (something leaves one and goes directly to the next or like siamese twins). These components are either continuous or connected via transfer by vesicles
What is the endoplasmic reticulum thought of as?
A biosynthetic factory
What are the two distinct regions of ER?
Smooth ER (which lacks ribosomes) and rough ER (with ribosomes studding its surface)
Which ER makes proteins?
Rough ER. It has ribosomes on it and makes proteins
What are the functions of the smooth ER (4)?
1. synthesizes lipids 2. metabolizes carbohydrates 3. detoxifies poison 4. stores calcium it secretes from cell
The liver is an organ that detoxifies the blood in an animal. What would you expect to do this?
Smooth ER. Basically saying what is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum
What are the functions of the rough ER (3)?
1. has bound ribosomes, which secrete glycoproteins (proteins covalently bonded to carbohydrates) 2. distributes transport vesicles, proteins surrounded by membranes 3. is a membrane factory for the cell every enzyme = protein
Where is any protein that leaves the cell made?
What is the golgi apparatus like?
Shipping and receiving center. Functions to its final form, prior to being shipped out
What are the functions of the golgi apparatus (3)?
1. modifies products of the ER 2. manufactures certain macromolecules 3. sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles lysosomes stay inside the cell
What is the cis face?
Receiving side of Golgi apparatus
What is the trans face?
Shipping side of golgi apparatus. Like a one way street
What are lysosomes?
Digestive compartments. It is a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules
What do lysosomes fuse with and do?
Fuse with the food vacuole and digests the molecules
What do lysosomes use enzymes to do?
Recycle the cell's own organelles and macromolecules, a process called autophagy (enzymes break stuff down) eat hamburger don't want cow cells
What are vacuoles like?
Diverse maintenance compartments
How are food vacuoles formed?
By phagocytosis. What cell brings in
What do contractile vacuoles do?
Found in many fresh water protists (eukaryotes with no cells) and pump excess water out of cells. Prevents cell from swelling popping.
What do central vacuoles do?
Found in many mature plant cells and hold organic compounds and water
Which vacuoles are primarily found in plants?
Food vacuoles and central vacuoles
What do mitochondria and chloroplasts do?
Change energy from one form to another
What are mitochondria?
The sites of cellular respiration, a metabolic process that generates ATP
What are chloroplasts?
Found in plants and algae, are the sites of photosynthesis
What are peroxisomes?
What are the 4 things mitochondria and chloroplasts have in common?
1. are not part of the endomembrane system 2. have a double membrane 3. have proteins made by free ribosomes 4. contain their own DNA
What is mitochondria mainly concerned with?
chemical energy conversion
Where are mitochondria mostly found?
Mostly all eukaryote cells
Where are some metabolic steps of cellular respiration catalyzed?
In the mitochondrial matrix
What are chloroplasts mainly concerned with?
Capture of light energy
What do chloroplasts contain?
The green pigment chlorophyll, as well as enzymes and other molecules that function in photosynthesis
What do peroxisomes mostly deal with?
What do peroxisomes produce?
Hydrogen peroxide and convert it to water
Concerning peroxisomes, what is oxygen used for?
Breaking down different types of molecules
What is the cytoskeleton?
A network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell. It is a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm
What does the cytoskeleton organize?
The cell's structures and activities, anchoring many organelles
What are the three molecular structures that the cytoskeleton is made of?
Microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments
What are the roles (3) of the cytoskeleton?
Support, motility, and regulation. It helps to support the cell and maintain its shape. Inside the cell, vessicles can travel along "monorails" provided by the cytoskeleton
What are cilia and flagella?
Locomotor appendages of some cells. Microtubules control their beating. They differ in their beating patterns
What do extracellular components and connections between cells help do?
Coordinate cellular activities
What do most cells synthesize and secrete (3)?
Materials that are external to the plasma membrane. These extracellular structures include: cell walls of plants, the extracellular matrix (ECM) of animal cells, and intercellular junctions
What is a cell wall?
An extracellular structure that distinguishes plant cells from animal cells. Prokaryotes, fungi, and some protists also have cell walls
What does the cell wall do?
Protects the plant cell, maintains its shape, and prevents excessive uptake of water
What are plant cell walls made of?
Cellulose fibers embedded in other polysaccharides and protein
Which structure is NOT part of the endomembrane system?
Which structure is common to plant AND animal cells?
Which of the following is present in a prokaryotic cell?
Which structure-function pair is MISMATCHED?
microtubule; muscle contraction
Cyanide binds to at least one molecule involved in producing ATP. If a cell is exposed to cyanide, most of the cyanide will be found within the
What is the most likely pathway taken by a newly synthesized protein that will be secreted by a cell?
ER → Golgi → vesicles that fuse with plasma membrane