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Nutrition-HED3313-Exam 1 Review
Chapters 1-7 and 7a, and 14
Terms in this set (89)
The process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth.
Taste, texture, and smell are the three most important factors that influence our food choices
Habits, comfort/discomfort foods, food cravings, availability, convenience, economy, body weight and image, advertising and promotion (trends), social factors, health benefits
an area characterized by a lack of affordable, fresh, and nutritious foods
Is a nutrient that the body cannot synthesize on its own -- or not to an adequate amount -- and must be provided by the diet. These nutrients are necessary for the body to function properly. The six essential nutrients include carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and water
Are substances that provide caloric value (calories) which are metabolized for energy. Macronutrients are called "macro" because we need them in large amounts and because they are large in molecular standards: -macro literally means very large in scale
Are vital for every function we perform in the body because they provide us with fuel for the body. Without that energy, our bodies would not be able to perform the constant upkeep required and we would eventually perish
Three main macronutrients in our diet
Carbohydrate: 4 kcal/gm
Fat: 9 kcal/gm
Protein: 4 kcal/gm
Are nutrients we need in smaller quantities: hence, -micro, which is Greek for "small". These are just as important as macronutrients in the sense that we need them, but the key difference lies in the sheer amount of the nutrients we need to digest
Micronutrients, which include vitamins - like Vitamin C, B, and E - and minerals - like Zinc, Magnesium, and Iron - help to safeguard our bodies.
One area of special importance is the brain. When our brain uses oxygen, it promotes the creation of free radicals. These can get out of control - as the name implies - and can cause damage to our cells. Antioxidants, in this case, are our saviors
General characteristics/sources of Essential nutrients
The six essential nutrients include carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and water
Major source of human energy
Cheaper source of energy than fats or proteins
Made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Main dietary sources: bread, pasta, crackers, cereals, potatoes, corn, peas, fruits, sugar, and syrups
Carbohydrates should make up 40% - 50% of the daily diet.
Basic components of all body cells
Essential for building and repairing tissue, regulating body functions, and providing energy and heat
Made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and some also contain sulfur, phosphorus, iron and iodine
Proteins are made up of 22 building blocks called amino acids:
i. Complete proteins: contain 9 of the amino acids that are essential to life. Found in meats, fish, milk, cheeses, eggs
ii. Incomplete proteins: contain any of the remaining thirteen amino acids and some of the nine essential amino acids. Found in vegetable foods such as cereals, soybeans, dry beans, peas, and peanuts.
Daily diet should consist of 10% - 15% protein
Provide the most concentrated form of energy but are a more expensive source of energy than carbohydrates
Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen but contain more oxygen than carbohydrates
Maintain body temperature by providing insulation; cushion organs and bones; aid in the absorption of fat soluble vitamins; provide flavor to meals
Two classifications of fats:
i. Saturated: fats that are solid at room temperature (shortening)
ii. Unsaturated: fats that are liquid or soft at room temperature (oils)
Cholesterol: a fatty substance found in body cells and animal fats and also manufactured by the liver. An excess can contribute to atherosclerosis
Main dietary sources: butter, margarine, oils, cream, fatty meats, cheeses, and egg yolk
Daily diet should consist of no more than 25% - 30% fat.
Vitamins are organic (living) compounds that are essential to life
Vitamins are important for metabolism, tissue building, and regulating body processes
Vitamins allow the body to use the energy provided by carbohydrates, fats and proteins
Only small amounts of vitamins are required; a well balanced diet usually supplies adequate amounts
Vitamins are classified as one of two types:
i. Water soluble: dissolve in water, are easily destroyed by cooking, air and light (vitamin C and B complex)
ii. Fat soluble: dissolve in fat, can be stored in the body, are not easily destroyed by cooking, air and light, (Vitamins A,D,E,K)
Minerals are inorganic (non living) elements found in all body cells
Minerals regulate body fluids, assist in various body functions, contribute to growth, and aid in building tissues
Water is found in all body tissues
Water essential for the digestion (breakdown) of food, makes up most of the blood plasma, helps body tissues absorb nutrients, and helps move waste material through the body.
The average person needs 6 to 8 glasses of water each day
Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010
emphasize three major goals for Americans:
Balance calories with physical activity to manage weight
Consume more of certain foods and nutrients such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fat-free and low-fat dairy products, and seafood
Consume fewer foods with sodium (salt), saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, and refined grains
Is part of a larger communication initiative based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010 to help consumers make better food choices. MyPlate is designed to remind Americans to eat healthfully, and is not intended to change consumer behavior alone. MyPlate illustrates the five food groups using a familiar mealtime visual
Estimated Average Requirements
A nutrient intake value that is estimated to meet the requirement of half the healthy individuals in a group
Estimated Average Requirement
Is a recommended average daily nutrient intake level based on observed or experimentally determined approximations or estimates of nutrient intake by a group (or groups) of apparently healthy people who are assumed to be maintaining an adequate nutritional state. Examples of adequate nutritional states include normal growth, maintenance of normal levels of nutrients in plasma, and other aspects of nutritional well-being or general health
Recommended Daily Allowance
Is the average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in a particular life-stage and gender group.
Recommended Daily Allowance
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
Is the highest level of continuing daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects in almost all individuals in the life-stage group for which it has been designed
Tolerable Upper Intake Level
Food Label Requirements & Components
Nutrient content claims, Health claims, structure/function claims should all be included.
A food that provides additional health benefits that may reduce disease risk and/or promote good health. Conventional foods: such as grains, fruits, vegetables and nuts.
Modified foods: such as yogurt, cereals and orange juice.
Medical foods: such as special formulations of foods and beverages for certain health conditions.
Foods for special dietary use: such as infant formula and hypoallergenic foods.
Phytochemicals- definition & benefits
are non-nutritive plant chemicals that have protective or disease preventive properties. They are nonessential nutrients, meaning that they are not required by the human body for sustaining life.
Types: Antioxidant - Most phytochemicals have antioxidant activity and protect our cells against oxidative damage and reduce the risk of developing certain types of cancer
Direct food additives & Purpose
Are often added during processing to:
Help process or prepare the food
Keep the product fresh
Make the food more appealing
Indirect food additives
Are substances that may be found in food during or after it is processed. They were not used or placed in the food on purpose. These additives are present in small amounts in the final product
Regulation of Functional foods
Can be regulated as conventional foods, food additives, dietary supplements, drugs, medical foods, of food for special dietary use.
Is an acronym for the phrase Generally Recognized As Safe.
Any substance that is intentionally added to food is a food additive, that is subject to premarket review and approval by FDA, unless the substance is generally recognized, among qualified experts, as having been adequately shown to be safe under the conditions of its intended use, or unless the use of the substance is otherwise excluded from the definition of a food additive
A dose many times the usual amount, as of a vitamin or drug, A very large amount of a dietary supplement
An herb is a plant or plant part used for its scent, flavor, or therapeutic properties. Herbal medicines are one type of dietary supplement. They are sold as tablets, capsules, powders, teas, extracts, and fresh or dried plants. People use herbal medicines to try to maintain or improve their health. Also known as Phytotherapy.
Generally refers to using a non-mainstream approach together with conventional medicine.
Refers to using a non-mainstream approach in place of conventional medicine
As identified by the CDC, eight known pathogens (bacteria, viruses and parasites that cause disease) account for the vast majority of foodborne illness, hospitalization and death in the United States:
E. coli O157:H7
Is any substance or mixture of substances intended for:
mitigating any pest.
increases production but concerns us with pollution and wildlife.
Definition of organic
Is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (e.g., biological pesticides) may also be used in producing organically grown food. Increasingly, some consumers are purchasing organically grown and processed foods as a way to reduce their exposure to synthetic pesticides and fertilizers. Many supermarkets now stock organic products for their consumers
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
Is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product.
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
Risks of food-borne illness
Long-term steroid use
Food Preservation techniques
Salting (pickles, olives)
Fermenting (Wine, Yogurts)
Drying (Beef, jerky, dried fruits)
Canning (Beans, soup)
Irradiation (Benefits: shelf life)
Enables scientists to create plants, animals and micro-organisms by manipulating genes in a way that does not occur naturally
Risks of genetic engineering
Benefits of genetic engineering
Pesticide and Fertilization use
Cross two plants and develop hybrids; takes time
Functions of GI tract
The digestive system is responsible for taking whole foods and turning them into energy and nutrients to allow the body to function, grow, and repair itself. The six primary processes of the digestive system include:
Ingestion of food
Secretion of fluids and digestive enzymes
Mixing and movement of food and wastes through the body
Digestion of food into smaller pieces
Absorption of nutrients
Excretion of wastes
The Human Body Terms
Small intestine & its nutritional absorption
Digestion of Carbohydrates
Digestion of fats
Digestion of proteins
Large Intestine & its nutritional absorption
Is the beginning of the digestive tract; and, in fact, digestion starts here when taking the first bite of food. Chewing breaks the food into pieces that are more easily digested, while saliva mixes with food to begin the process of breaking it down into a form your body can absorb and use
Are accessory organs that produce a watery secretion known as saliva. Saliva helps to moisten food and begins the digestion of carbohydrates. The body also uses saliva to lubricate food as it passes through the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus
Is a muscular tube connecting the pharynx to the stomach that is part of the upper gastrointestinal tract. It carries swallowed masses of chewed food along its length
The function of this sphincter is to close of the end of the esophagus and trap food in the stomach.
A rounded mass of food or pharmaceutical preparation ready to swallow, or such a mass passing through the gastrointestinal tract
is a muscular sac that is located on the left side of the abdominal cavity, just inferior to the diaphragm. This major organ acts as a storage tank for food so that the body has time to digest large meals properly
A strong acid that helps to break down food
Is a radially symmetrical contraction and relaxation of muscles which propagates in a wave down a muscular tube, in an anterograde fashion. To propel food/chyme through a digestive tract.
It is a localized contraction of circular smooth muscles that constricts the intestine into segments
Is a long, thin tube about 1 inch in diameter and about 10 feet long that is part of the lower gastrointestinal tract. It is located just inferior to the stomach and takes up most of the space in the abdominal cavity. The entire small intestine is coiled like a hose and the inside surface is full of many ridges and folds. These folds are used to maximize the digestion of food and absorption of nutrients. By the time food leaves the small intestine, around 90% of all nutrients have been extracted from the food that entered it.
Tiny hairlike folds in the plasma membrane that extend from the surface of many absorptive or secretory cells
Movement of molecules DOWN the concentration gradient. It goes from high to low concentration, in order to maintain equilibrium in the cells. Does not require cellular energy
is the carrier-mediated transport of large molecules through the cell membrane using transport proteins embedded within the cell membrane.These molecules would otherwise not be able to breach the cell membrane, but the transport proteins effectively "transport" them through. Higher concentration to lower concentration.
Uses ATP to pump molecules AGAINST/UP the concentration gradient. Transport occurs from a low concentration of solute to high concentration of solute. Requires cellular energy.
Is a roughly triangular accessory organ of the digestive system located to the right of the stomach, just inferior to the diaphragm and superior to the small intestine. The liver weighs about 3 pounds and is the second largest organ in the body. The liver has many different functions in the body, but the main function of the liver in digestion is the production of bile and its secretion into the small intestine
Is a fluid that is made and released by the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Helps with digestion. It break down fats into fatty acids, which can be taken into the body by the digestive tract.
Is a small, pear-shaped organ located just posterior to the liver. The gallbladder is used to store and recycle excess bile from the small intestine so that it can be reused for the digestion of subsequent meals
Is a large gland located just inferior and posterior to the stomach. It is about 6 inches long and shaped like short, lumpy snake with its "head" connected to the duodenum and its "tail" pointing to the left wall of the abdominal cavity. The pancreas secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine to complete the chemical digestion of foods
Is a long, thick tube about 2 ½ inches in diameter and about 5 feet long. It is located just inferior to the stomach and wraps around the superior and lateral border of the small intestine. The large intestine absorbs water and contains many symbiotic bacteria that aid in the breaking down of wastes to extract some small amounts of nutrients. Feces in the large intestine exit the body through the anal canal
Function of carbohydrates
Have six major functions within the body: Providing energy and regulation of blood glucose. Sparing the use of proteins for energy. Breakdown of fatty acids and preventing ketosis
Importance of glucose
Serves as the primary energy source for the brain and is also a source of energy for cells throughout the body. This energy helps the cells carry out nerve cell conduction, muscle cell contraction, active transport and the production of chemical substances. When you eat foods that contain starches, enzymes from the saliva and pancreatic juices break them into maltose molecules. The small intestine makes glucose molecules by splitting the maltose. The bloodstream then carries the glucose to the liver for storage or for use as an energy source
Types of fiber
Some types of soluble fiber may help lower cholesterol, but the effect on heart disease is not known. Insoluble fiber is found in foods such as wheat bran, vegetables, and whole grains. It adds bulk to the stool and appears to help food pass more quickly through the stomach and intestines.
Type 1: lack of insulin production
Type 2: Cells are resistant to insulin
Gestational diabetes: occurs during pregnancy
Function of Lipids
Storing energy, signaling, and acting as structural components of cell membranes
Types of lipids & Description/Function of each
1. Triacylglycerols (fats and oils)
Structure: Made from 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acid tails = tri-acylglycerol
Example: Fats: Butter, lard Oils: Corn oil, olive oil, margerine
Function: Energy storage & Cushions and insulates the body and nerves.
2. Diacylglycerides (phospholipids): lipid bilayers (the plasma membrane of every cell and the membranes within eukaryotic cells)
Structure - similar to a triacylglycerol, but has only 2 fatty acid tails, and in addition has a phosphate group = (1 glycerol, 2 fatty acids, and a -PO4)
The -PO4 makes the glycerol "head" water soluble, or hydrophilic.
The long hydrocarbon tail is hydrophobic.
Function: Due to this "amphipathic" nature (both water-loving and water-hating regions in a single molecule), phospholipids self assemble into bilayers that shield the tail from water = forming membranes (phospholipid bilayers!).
3. Steroids: (cholesterol, steroid hormones)
Structure: Considered to be a "cousin" of fats - and are made from lipids. Have no fatty acids in their structure, but are very hydrophobic , see Fig 3.10b in your book
Functions of Chloesterol:
(1) Help to maintain membrane fluidity, pliability and resilience in membranes of animals, which have high amounts or rigid, saturated fatty acids.
(2) Sex hormones (testosterone, estrogen and progesterone) are all made from cholesterol
Cholesterol gets a 'bad rap" in our diet, but has CRUCIAL roles in the functioning of our cells - we couldn't live without cholesterol!!!
However, too much cholestereol in the diet is known to be a factor in atherosclerosis and heart disease.
Cholesterol circulates in the bloodstream bound to carrier 'lipo-proteins'. High Density Lipoprotein (HDL - the "Good" kind) carries blood cholesterol to the liver where is can be eliminated from the body. Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL - the "Bad" kind) deposits blood cholesterol in the artery walls, where it can lead to constriction of blood vessels,heart disease, heart attacks, etc
Essential amino acids
Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body. As a result, they must come from food.
The nine essential amino acids are: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine.
Non-Essential amino acids
means that our bodies produce an amino acid, even if we don't get it from the food we eat.
They include: alanine, asparagine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid.
Definition of Denaturation
A process in which the folding structure of a protein is altered due to exposure to certain chemical or physical factors (e.g. heat, acid, solvents, etc.), causing the protein to become biologically inactive.
Functions of Proteins
Repair and Maintenance, Energy, Hormones, Enzymes, Transportation and storage of molecules, and Antibodies.
Process whereby DNA encodes for the production of amino acids and proteins.
This process can be divided into two parts:
The continuing breakdown and synthesis of proteins in the body, with recycling of amino acids.
Metabolism defined & types
Metabolism refers to all the physical and chemical processes in the body that convert or use energy, such as:
Controlling body temperature
Digesting food and nutrients
Eliminating waste through urine and feces
Functioning of the brain and nerves
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is considered by biologists to be the energy currency of life. It is the high-energy molecule that stores the energy we need to do just about everything we do. It is present in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of every cell, and essentially all the physiological mechanisms that require energy for operation obtain it directly from the stored ATP. (Guyton) As food in the cells is gradually oxidized, the released energy is used to re-form the ATP so that the cell always maintains a supply of this essential molecule.
Is a period of abstinence from all food or specific items. Fluids are consumed in sufficient quantity to satisfy thirst and physiologic requirements. During the absence of food, the body will systematically cleanse itself of everything except vital tissue. Starvation will occur only when the body is forced to use vital tissue to survive
Is the process by which acetyl-CoA is converted to fatty acids. The former is an intermediate stage in metabolism of simple sugars, such as glucose, a source of energy of living organisms
break glucose down to form two pyruvates
Is the release of ketones into the body when fat is broken down for energy. When carbohydrate stores are exhausted, cells turn to fat cells for fuel. These fat cells break down and release energy, and ketones are the by-product of that breakdown. Acetoacetate and acetone are usually also released
The formation of glucose, especially by the liver, from noncarbohydrate sources, such as amino acids.
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