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Who were in the Freedman's Bureau of 1865?
Freedman were African Americans who were no longer slaves
What was the mission of the Freedman's Bureau?
-established schools staffed by missionaries and teachers
-modest efforts to settle blacks on land
-designed to operate for one year
What were the guidelines of the 10 % Plan
-10% of a state had to take oath of allegiance to begin to set up government
-offered a general amnesty to southerners who made a pledge of loyalty
-state would have to accept 13th amendment
-high ranking Confederate army officers and government officials wouldnt be granted a pardon
What did Lincoln not guarantee southerners in his 10% plan?
that their slaves would be protected, however their property was
Who supported the 10% plan and why?
moderate republicans in congress because tehy wanted a quick end to the war
Which states actually accepted the 10% plan and established new governments in 1864?
Louisiana, TN and arkansas
Who proposed the Wade Davis Bill
Radical Republicans in congress of 1864 in response to Lincolns 10 % plan
What were the rules of the Wade Davies Bill?
-a southern state could rejoin the union if 50% of its registered voters swore an "ironclad oath" of allegiance to the U.S.
Who could attend the convention?
only delegates who signed an ironclad oath and promised they did not serve for the south
What did the ironclad oath entail?
states would have to accept 13th amendment and disenfranchise military and political leaders
What did the Wade Davies Bill do for African American rights?
-established safeguards but didn't give them the right to vote
-political rights for blacks left up to southern states
Describe Andrew Johnson
Democrat from TN and not well liked by Congress; was Lincolns VP and became president when shot
How did Lincoln feel about punishing southerners?
he did not want to punish them or reorganize their society
Did Lincoln want a long or short reconstruction?
short process in which the U.S. could go back to normal; unlike Radical Republicans
Who vetoes the renewal of Freedmen's Bureau charter?
Johnson in 1866 and the Civil Rights Act of 1866 is passed over his amendment
What were the outlines of Johnson's Reconstruction plan?
-offered amnesty to those who took oath
-said high ranking officials and property owners would have to apply for a pardon
-president would appoint a provisional governor for each state
-each state would have to accept the 13th amendment and then create a new government
What happened with the states vs. union by the end of 1865?
all states had returned under Lincoln/Johnson plan
Define Laissez faire
federal government should stay out of the economic and social affairs of its people
What did Johnson believe about states rights?
that they took precedence over central authority and disapproved of legislation that affected economy
What plans did Johnson surprisingly reject?
the plans of the Radical Republicans attempts to dissolve plantation system, reorganize southern economy and protect black civil rights
What was Johnson's views on equality?
thought blacks should not have the same rights as whites in the union
What is the Joint Committee on Reconstruction of 1865?
what congress establishes in response to Johnsons plan
What did congress pass in 1866 to prevent black codes and guarantee citizenship to all Americans?
The Civil Rights Act of 1866
What does the 14th amendment of 1866 say?
added to constitution 2 years later and gave citizenship for blacks
What court case did the Civil Rights Act of 1866 reverse?
The Dred Scott v. Sanford ruling by supreme court, which stated that blacks were not citizens
Where did major riots erupt after the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and 14th amendment?
Memphis and New Orleans
Who made the speech "Swing Around the Circle"
president Johnson when he placed the blame for riots on radical republicans
What was the new era of reconstruction called after the elections of 1866?
What were the terms of the MIlitary Reconstruction act in 1867?
-combined remaining ten states into 5 military districts
-military commander governs each district
-began to register all black and white males who didnt participate in war
-new voters set up new government and had to accept 13 and 14 amendment
What was the 15th amendment?
congress passed it and gave all American males the right to vote in 1870
Who were the last 3 states remaining in the union that had to pass all 3 amendments (13.14. and 15)
Virginia, Texas and Mississippi
What did Andrew Johnson try and do to prevent Military Reconstruction?
vetoed each of their bills, but all three vetoes are overridden by congress
How was life for the Blacks as these new amendments and rights were being passed?
southerners ignored these new laws so not much was changing
What is the Tenure of Office Act
congress passes this and it requires that the president seek congressional approval for removing a cabinet member
Who was Edwin M. Stanton
secretary of war that the republicans were aiming to keep in office, but Johnson fires him in 1867 while congress is in recess
Who brings up impeachment charges on Johnson and for what?
the Congress for violating the Tenure of Office Act
Is Johnson actually impeached?
the 35 to 19 vote falls one vote short of 2/3 vote needed, he actually ends up leaving office that year
Does the emancipation proclamation free all slaves?
NO; only free in states that were in rebellion or occupied by union; so not Maryland, Delaware and Missouri
what is a Scallywag?
a southerner who jumps into republican party and very eager to be loyal to the union; "traitor to southerners"
what is a carpetbagger?
northerners who try to come into south and build up northern traditions down south; viewed as stealing southern goods and living on southern land
What did blacks start to do to take advantage of their new voting majority?
-black office holders
How successful were blacks becoming after reconstruction?
mixed success as public debt dramatically increasing
How many schools did Freedman's Bureau help to reeducate by 1870 in the South?
9000 teachers and 200,000 students
what were grandfather clause?
allowed poor whites ot vote who could not pay or read by excluding blacks whose ancestors were slaves
Who were the redeemers?
*also known as the Bourbons
-white majorities began to reclaim the political majority in most southern states
Name 3 vigilante groups who used violence to enforce social laws
KKK, Knights of the White Camellia and the Red Shirts
What did the Enforcement Acts of 1870 and 1871 do?
tried to combat groups like the KKK
-troops were sent to 9 districts in SC
Who wins the presidency of 1876?
Rutherford B. Hayes with all 20 votes in favor of him from congress etc..: wins by 1 vote
What was the compromise of 1877
-military reconstruction ends
-southern democrats use "Home Rule" in south
-appointment of at least one Southerner in cabinet
-generous internal improvements for South(railroads)
-left Civil rights alone and thus the rise of Jim Crowism
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