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Chapter 33: The Preschooler and Family Perry: Maternal Child Nursing Care, 6th Edition
Terms in this set (29)
1. Which accomplishment would the nurse expect of a healthy 3-year-old child?
a. Jump rope
b. Ride a two-wheel bicycle
c. Skip on alternate feet
d. Balance on one foot for a few seconds
Three year olds are able to accomplish the gross motor skill of balancing on one foot. Jumping rope, riding a two-wheel bike, and skipping on alternate feet are gross motor skills of 5-year-old children.
2. In terms of fine motor development, what could the 3-year-old child be expected to do?
a. Tie shoelaces
b. Use scissors or a pencil very well
c. Draw a person with 7 to 9 parts
d. Copy (draw) a circle.
Three-year-olds are able to accomplish the fine motor skill of drawing a circle. Tying shoelaces, using scissors or a pencil very well, and drawing a person with multiple parts are fine motor skills of 5-year-old children.
3. In terms of cognitive development, the preschooler would be expected to engage in what behavior?
a. Use magical thinking
b. Think abstractly
c. Understand conservation of matter
d. Be able to comprehend another person's perspective
Preschoolers' thinking is often described as magical thinking. Because of their egocentrism and transductive reasoning, they believe that thoughts are all-powerful. Abstract thought does not develop until school-age years. The concept of conservation is the cognitive task of school-age children ages 5 to 7 years. Five year olds cannot understand another's perspective.
4. What is descriptive of the preschooler's understanding of time?
a. Has no understanding of time
b. Associates time with events
c. Can tell time on a clock
d. Uses terms like "yesterday" appropriately
In a preschooler's understanding, time has a relation with events such as, "We'll go outside after lunch." Preschoolers develop an abstract sense of time at age 3 years. Children can tell time on a clock at age 7 years. Children do not fully understand use of time-oriented words until age 6 years.
5. The nurse is caring for a hospitalized 4 year old. The parents tell the nurse that they will be back to visit at 6 PM. When the child asks the nurse, "when my parents are coming", what is the nurse's best response?
a. "They will be here soon."
b. "They will come after dinner."
c. "Let me show you on the clock when 6 PM is."
d. "I will tell you every time I see you how much longer it will be."
A 4 year old understands time in relation to events such as meals. Children perceive "soon" as a very short time. The nurse may lose the child's trust if his parents do not return in the time he perceives as "soon." Children cannot read or use a clock for practical purposes until age 7 years. This answer assumes that the child understands the concept of hours and minutes, which is not developed until age 5 or 6 years.
6. A 4 year old is hospitalized with a serious bacterial infection. The child tells the nurse that, "I am sick because I was bad." What is the nurse's best interpretation of this comment?
a. It is a sign of stress.
b. It is common at this age.
c. It is suggestive of maladaptation.
d. It is suggestive of excessive discipline at home.
Preschoolers cannot understand the cause and effect of illness. Their egocentrism makes them think that they are directly responsible for events, making them feel guilt for things outside of their control. Children of this age show stress by regressing developmentally or acting out. Maladaptation is unlikely. This comment does not imply excessive discipline at home.
7. In terms of language and cognitive development, which behavior is expected of a 4-year-old child?
a. Thinking in abstract terms.
b. Following simple commands.
c. Understanding conservation of matter.
d. Comprehending another person's perspective.
Children ages 3 to 4 years can give and follow simple commands. Children cannot think abstractly at age 4 years. Conservation of matter is a developmental task of the school-age child. A 4-year-old child cannot comprehend another's perspective.
8. Which type of play is most typical of the preschool period?
Associative play is group play in similar or identical activities but without rigid organization or rules. Solitary play is that of infants. Parallel play is that of toddlers. School-age children play in teams.
9. Why are imaginary playmates beneficial to the preschool child?
a. Take the place of social interactions.
b. Take the place of pets and other toys.
c. Become friends in times of loneliness.
d. Accomplish what the child has already successfully accomplished.
One purpose of an imaginary friend is to be a friend in time of loneliness. Imaginary friends do not take the place of social interactions but may encourage conversation. Imaginary friends do not take the place of pets or toys. They accomplish what the child is still attempting, not what has already been accomplished.
10. Which characteristics best describes the language of a 3-year-old child?
a. Asks meanings of words
b. Follows directional commands
c. Can describe an object according to its composition
d. Talks incessantly, regardless of whether anyone is listening
Because of the dramatic vocabulary increase at this age, 3 year olds are known to talk incessantly, regardless of whether anyone is listening. A 4 to 5 year old asks lots of questions and can follow simple directional commands. A 6 year old can describe an object according to its composition.
11. By what age would the nurse expect that most children could understand prepositional phrases such as "under," "on top of," "beside," and "in back of"?
a. 18 months
b. 24 months
c. 3 years
d. 4 years
At 4 years, children can understand directional phrases. Children 18 to 24 months and 3 years of age are too young.
12. What skill that the nurse should expect a 5-year-old child to be able to master?
a. Tie shoelaces.
b. Use a knife to cut meat.
c. Hammer a nail.
d. Make change from a quarter.
Tying shoelaces is a fine motor task typical of 5 year olds. Using a knife to cut meat is a fine motor task of a 7 year old. Hammering a nail and making change from a quarter are fine motor tasks of an 8 to 9 year old.
13. The nurse is guiding parents in selecting a day care facility for their child. When making the selection, it is especially important to focus on which consideration?
a. Structured learning environment.
b. Socioeconomic status of children.
c. Cultural similarities of children.
d. Teachers knowledgeable about development.
A teacher knowledgeable about development will structure activities for learning. A structured learning environment is not necessary at this age. Socioeconomic status is not the most important factor in selecting a preschool. Preschool is about expanding experiences with others; cultural similarities are not necessary.
14. The parent of a 4 year old tells the nurse that the child believes "monsters and the boogeyman" are in the bedroom at night. What is the nurse's best suggestion for coping with this problem?
a. Insist that the child sleep with his parents until the fearful phase passes.
b. Suggest involving the child to find a practical solution such as a night-light.
c. Help the child understand that these fears are illogical.
d. Tell the child frequently that monsters and the boogeyman do not exist.
A night-light shows a child that imaginary creatures do not lurk in the darkness. Letting the child sleep with parents or telling the child that these creatures do not exist will not get rid of the fears. A 4 year old is in the preconceptual age and cannot understand logical thought.
15. Preschoolers' fears can best be dealt with by which intervention?
a. Actively involving them in finding practical methods to deal with the frightening experience.
b. Forcing them to confront the frightening object or experience in the presence of their parents.
c. Using logical persuasion to explain away their fears and help them recognize how unrealistic the fears are.
d. Ridiculing their fears so they understand that there is no need to be afraid.
Actively involving the child in finding practical methods to deal with the frightening experience is the best way to deal with fears. Forcing a child to confront fears may make the child more afraid. Preconceptual thought prevents logical understanding. Ridiculing fears does not make them go away.
16. What is a normal characteristic of the language development of a preschool-age child?
d. Repetition without meaning
Stammering and stuttering are normal dysfluencies in preschool-age children. Lisps are not a normal characteristic of language development. Echolalia and repetition are traits of toddlers' language.
17. During the preschool period, what should the emphasis of injury prevention be placed on?
a. Constant vigilance and protection
b. Punishment for unsafe behaviors
c. Education for safety and potential hazards
d. Limitation of physical activities
Education for safety and potential hazards is appropriate for preschoolers because they can begin to understand dangers. Constant vigilance and protection is not practical at this age since preschoolers are becoming more independent. Punishment may make children scared of trying new things. Limitation of physical activities is not appropriate.
18. Acyclovir is given to children with chickenpox for what purpose?
a. Minimize scarring
b. Decrease the number of lesions
c. Prevent aplastic anemia
d. Prevent spread of the disease
Acyclovir decreases the number of lesions, shortens duration of fever, and decreases itching, lethargy, and anorexia; however, it does not prevent scarring. Preventing aplastic anemia is not a function of acyclovir. Only quarantine of the infected child can prevent the spread of disease.
19. When is a child with chickenpox considered to be no longer contagious?
a. When fever is absent
b. When lesions are crusted
c. 24 hours after lesions erupt
d. 8 days after onset of illness
When the lesions are crusted, the chickenpox is no longer contagious. This may be a week after onset of disease. The child is still contagious once the fever has subsided and after the lesions erupt, and may or may not be contagious any time after 6 days as long as all lesions are crusted over.
20. The nurse is performing an assessment on a child and notes the presence of Koplik's spots. In which communicable disease are Koplik's spots present?
b. Measles (rubeola)
c. Chickenpox (varicella)
d. Exanthema subitum (roseola)
Koplik's spots are small, irregular red spots with a minute, bluish white center found on the buccal mucosa 2 days before the systemic rash of measles appears. Koplik's spots are not present with rubella, varicella, or roseola.
21. A common characteristic of those who sexually abuse children is that they:
a. pressure the victim into secrecy.
b. are usually unemployed and unmarried.
c. are unknown to victims and victims' families.
d. have many victims that are each abused only once.
Sex offenders may pressure the victim into secrecy, regarding the activity as a "secret between us" that other people may take away if they find out. Abusers are often employed upstanding members of the community. Most sexual abuse is committed by men and persons who are well known to the child. Abuse is often repeated with the same child over time. The relationship may start insidiously without the child realizing that sexual activity is part of the offer.
22. Which statement, made by a 4-year-old child's father, demonstrates an understanding about the care of the preschooler's teeth?
a. "Because the 'baby teeth' are not permanent, they are not important to the child."
b. "My son can be encouraged to brush his teeth after I have thoroughly cleaned his teeth."
c. "My son's 'permanent teeth' will begin to come in at 4 to 5 years of age."
d. "Fluoride supplements can be discontinued when my son's 'permanent teeth' erupt."
Toddlers and preschoolers lack the manual dexterity to remove plaque adequately, so parents must assume this responsibility. Deciduous teeth are important because they maintain spacing and play an important role in the growth and development of the jaws and face and in speech development. Secondary teeth erupt at about 6 years of age. If the family does not live in an area where fluoride is included in the water supply, fluoride supplements should be continued.
23. A 4-year-old child tells the nurse, "I do not want another blood sample drawn because I need all my insides, and I do not want anyone taking them out." Which is the nurse's best interpretation of this statement?
a. Child is being overly dramatic.
b. Child has a disturbed body image.
c. Preschoolers have poorly defined body boundaries.
d. Preschoolers normally have a good understanding of their bodies.
Preschoolers have little understanding of body boundaries, which leads to fears of mutilation. The child is not capable of being dramatic at 4 years of age. She truly has fear. Body image is just developing in the school-age child. Preschoolers do not have good understanding of their bodies.
24. Parents tell the nurse that they found their 3-year-old daughter and a male cousin of the same age inspecting each other closely as they used the bathroom. Which is the most appropriate recommendation the nurse should make?
a. Punish children so this behavior stops.
b. Neither condone nor condemn the curiosity.
c. Allow children unrestricted permission to satisfy this curiosity.
d. Get counseling for this unusual and dangerous behavior.
Three year olds become aware of anatomic differences and are concerned about how the other "works." Such exploration should not be condoned or condemned. Children should not be punished for this normal exploration. Encouraging the children to ask questions of the parents and redirecting their activity are more appropriate than giving permission. Exploration is age-appropriate and not dangerous behavior.
25. Which common childhood communicable disease may cause severe defects in the fetus when it occurs in its congenital form?
a. Erythema infectiosum
Rubella causes teratogenic effects on the fetus. There is a low risk of fetal death to those in contact with children affected with fifth disease. Roseola and rubeola are not dangerous to the fetus.
26. Which is the causative agent of scarlet fever?
b. Corynebacterium organisms
c. Scarlet fever virus
d. Group A -hemolytic streptococci (GABHS)
GABHS infection causes scarlet fever. Enteroviruses do not cause the same complications. Corynebacterium organisms cause diphtheria. Scarlet fever is not caused by a virus.
27. Which is probably the most important criterion on which to base the decision to report suspected child abuse?
a. Inappropriate parental concern for the degree of injury
b. Absence of parents for questioning about child's injuries
c. Inappropriate response of child
d. Incompatibility between the history and injury observed
Conflicting stories about the "accident" are the most indicative red flags of abuse. Inappropriate response of caregiver or child may be present, but is subjective. Parents should be questioned at some point during the investigation.
1. Which play patterns does a 3-year-old child typically display? (Select all that apply.)
a. Imaginary play
b. Parallel play
c. Cooperative play
d. Structured play
e. Associative play
ANS: A, B, C, E
Children between ages 3 and 5 years enjoy parallel and associative play. Children learn to share and cooperate as they play in small groups. Play is often imitative, dramatic, and creative. Imaginary friends are common around age 3 years. Structured play is typical of school-age children.
2. In terms of language and cognitive development, a 4-year-old child would be expected to have which traits? (Select all that apply.)
a. Think in abstract terms
b. Sexual curiosity
c. Understand conservation of matter
d. Use sentences of eight words
e. Tell exaggerated stories
ANS: B, E
Children 4 years of age demonstrate sexual curiosity and tell exaggerated stories. Children cannot think abstractly at age 4 years. Conservation of matter is a developmental task of the school-age child. Five-year-old children use sentences with eight words with all parts of speech.
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