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AP Bio FRQ
Terms in this set (19)
-describe the smaller units
-their assembly into the larger structures
-one major function of these larger, organized structures.
-Made up of amino acids
-Amino acids link together via peptide bonds resulting in a polypeptide or protein
-Enzymes lower the activation energy
Based on the chemical structure of cyanide, identify ONE type of biological macromolecule that could serve as a chemical precursor for the production of cyanide in a plant. Justify your choice.
Proteins could serve as a chemical precursor for the production of cyanide in a plant because proteins contain nitrogen, which can then triple bond with carbon in the plant, resulting in cyanide.
Identify the type of monomer of which this enzyme, bromelain is composed.
Bromelain works by breaking the enzymes that cause browning into smaller molecules. Explain how the reaction that breaks up the enzymes occurs.
Bromelain separates the amino acids in the enzymes that cause browning by breaking the peptide bonds.
The pH of a solution determines the charge of certain R groups. The pH of pineapple fruit ranges from 3.5 to 5.2. Predict and justify the effect on the activity of bromelain if it is used in a product with a pH of 11.
The activity of bromelain will decrease.
The stems and fruits of pineapple plants, with a pH ranging from 3.5 to 5.3, contain bromelain. Since bromelain functions in this acidic environment, the activity of bromelain would decrease in a very basic environment.
Connect primary structure of an enzyme to its overall shape
The primary structure of an enzyme is the sequence of amino acids linked by peptide bonds in a linear chain. The resulting amino acid chain is called a polypeptide or protein. Interactions between the amino acids determine the enzyme's secondary structure, being either alpha helices or beta pleated sheets. The tertiary structure is the enzyme's overall three dimensional structure, which is primarily due to interactions between the R groups of the amino acids that make up the protein. This demonstrate how the primary structure has a huge impact on the enzyme's overall shape.
Describe how the properties of water contribute to transpiration
and thermoregulation in endotherms
The cohesive properties of water allow water to be pulled upward in narrow spaces. This allows for transpiration, through which water moves up the plant and evaporates at the surface of the leaf cells. Water has a very high heat capacity, which allows for thermoregulation in endotherms, since evaporation of water in sweat removes heat and helps to cool body temperature in endotherms.
Describe THREE types of chemical bonds/interactions found in proteins. For each type, describe its role in determining protein structure.
Peptide bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges are all found in proteins.Peptide bonds link amino acids in a protein's primary structure. Hydrogen bonds hold together the secondary structure (the alpha helices or beta pleated sheets). Disulfide bridges stabilize the tertiary structure by allowing different parts of the protein to be held together covalently.
Discuss the organization of the genetic material in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
The majority of genetic material is organized into chromosomes. Prokaryotes have a single circular chromosome in the nucleoid, whereas eukaryotes have multiple linear chromosomes in the nucleus.
Discuss THREE properties of water
Water is polar, slightly charged on both ends, because oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen. Water's cohesion allows for surface tension, which allows animals like the basilisk lizard can walk on water. Water has a high specific heat, which allows for evaporative cooling to occur.
Describe why hydrogen bonds form between water molecules.
Hydrogen bonds form between a hydrogen atom and a very electronegative atom. Since oxygen is very electronegative, hydrogen bonds form between hydrogen and oxygen.
Explain why the arrangement of water molecules is different in ice and water.
Hydrogen bonding plays a stronger role in the density and shape of ice than the covalent bonds as the water molecules are pressed against each other very closely. This causes like-like charges to repel and spread out, making ice less dense than water.
The arrangement of the water molecules in ice causes the ice to float. Explain how ice floating on the surface of a body of water affects the water in a way that is beneficial to the organisms in it.
When water freezes in the winter, floating ice forms a layer of insulation on top of the water. The ice layer insulates the water below it, allowing it to stay liquid, therefore allowing life within the water to survive.
Identify THREE macromolecules that are components of the plasma membrane in a eukaryotic cell and discuss the structure and function of each
Phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins are components of the plasma membrane in a eukaryotic cell. Phospholipids are made up of a glycerol, two fatty acids, and a polar head group with phosphate. Phospholipids are selectively permeable, protecting the cell. Cholesterol is a ring structure that stabilizes the membrane. Proteins are made up of amino acids, and act as enzymes to speed up chemical reactions.
Predict the likely results of a comet assay for this treatment.
Head (only) OR (head with) no tail
To explain the movement of DNA fragments in the comet assay, identify one property of DNA and provide reasoning to support how the property contributes to the movement during the comet assay technique.
DNA has a negative charge which contributes to movement because DNA moves toward the oppositely charged pole.
The chemical composition and levels of structure of proteins
A string of amino acids held together by a peptide bond is a protein. Every protein has free amino and a free carboxyl end. The primary structure is the order of the amino acids in the protein. The secondary structure has the long string of amino acids coiling into an alpha helix or forming a beta-pleated sheet. The tertiary structure is composed of the beta-pleated sheets and the alpha helices folding together. The quaternary structure is the structure that results of the assembly of several polypeptide to make an unique functional protein.
Describe why translation of an mRNA can start before transcription of the mRNA is complete in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes.
Since mRNA is produced in the cytoplasm in prokaryotes, the start codons of an mRNA being transcribed are available to ribosomes before the entire mRNA molecule is made. In eukaryotic cells, transcription takes place in the nucleus. The mRNA must be completely synthesized and moved through the nuclear membrane to the cytoplasm before translation can begin.
What is Rf equal to?
The distance travelled by the component divided by the distance travelled by the solvent.
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