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5023 Chapter 3 Study Guide
Terms in this set (32)
Behavior relations that are based on the genetic endowment of an organism and aids survival/reproduction.
*Would this happen in absence of operant conditioning?
Example: Baby crying, animal urinating
3 Sequences of Behavior
1. Fixed Action Patterns
2. Modal Action Patterns
3. Reaction Chains
Fixed Action Pattern (FAP)
Sequences of behavior that are phylogenetic in origin, built-in, and cannot change. ALL members of the species engage in it when appropriate releasing stimuli are present.
Ex: Squirrel - sequence of movement - picks up nut, climbs to ground, buries nut.
Modal Action Patterns:
a series of related acts found in all or nearly all members of a species - flexibility.
Ex: birds build nests that appear similar BUT are not located in the same location or may not use the same material.
*Similar to FAPs
ONE major difference - each set of responses in a reaction chain requires an appropriate stimulus to set it off.
Ex: courtship chain of fish - can be terminated at any point if behavior displays by either fish are inadequate to function as a stimulus for the next link in the chain.
*Is elicited by US, reliably
*Automatic in that a healthy organism will always produce the UR when presented with an US.
Relationship between US ->UR
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
*Elicits a response in the absence of learning
Unconditioned Response (UR)
*The unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
*Related behavior following the unconditioned stimulus
Used because the reflex does not depend on an organism's experience or conditioning during its lifetime (ie learning)
3 Primary Laws of the Reflex
1. Law of the Threshold
2. Law of Intensity - Magnitude
3. Law of Latency
Law of the Threshold
*Threshold of reflex NOT organism
*There is a point below in which no response is elicited due to weak stimulus and a point above in which a response always occurs.
Law of Latency
Time between onset of the eliciting stimulus and the appearance of the reflexive response (US ->UR).
Law of Intensity-Magnitude
Relationship between the intensity as the US increases, so does magnitude of elicited UR.
US repeatedly elicits an UR and the response gradually declines in magnitude
Ex: Live in area with frequent , loud volcanic sounds that elicit a startle/panic response, accompanied by running - but UR habituated with repeated eruptions
Ex: Live under an airport flight path - loud jet sound elicits startle response...
Individual organism's level - starts and ends with individual.
Behavior has been selected and conditioned over lifetime of organism.
Ex: Salivating at the sight of McDonald's arches, especially if hungry and enjoy hamburgers
PROCESS of pairing US w/NS (REPEATEDLY) so that the NS now elicits the response that used to be elicited by the US alone.
Contiguity of Stimuli
Stimuli and/or events that are close together in time and in space so that they become similar in function.
The closer in time the stimuli are in pairing the more similar they are in function.
EX: presentation of food and immediate paring of clicker
Whys is Contiguity of Stimuli relevant?
In the human species, conditioning by contiguity happens all the time.
Ex: Mother-infant bonding - mother's milk paired with mother's voice, facial features or odor
The increase in the CR to the presentation of the CS
When you break pairing by repeatedly presenting the CS but not the US and see decrease in response.
An increase in the CR after respondent extinction has occurred.
Occurs when an organism shows a CR to values of the CS that were not trained during acquisition.
*is a graph
Plots stimulus values against the magnitude of the response
Organism shows CR to one stimulus but not other similar events.
Ex: blinking to one stimuli
4 Types of Conditioning
Presentation of the US is slightly delayed relative to the CS. Considered most effective way to condition simple autonomic reflexes such as salivation.
CS and US are presented at the same time.
Organism must remember presentation of CS.
As time between the CS and US increases, the CR becomes weaker.
US comes on and goes off BEFORE the CS comes on.
US + NS (repeat) = NS->CS
CS + CS
Important because it extends the range of behavioral effects
EX: girl will not sit out side on nice day because too many flowers = previously stung (US) -> by bee (CS) ->and she noticed bees hover around flowers (CS2)
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