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Briefly summarize the process of conception. Use the following terms in your summary:
Fallopian tube, uterus, sperm, ovum.
about once every 28 days an OVUM is released by one of a woman's two ovaries. this release is part of a woman's menstrual cycle and is called ovulation. Hormones are released during ovulation which prepare the uterus in case the ovum is fertilized. The uterus is where the baby develops during pregnancy. When an ovum is released from the ovary, it moves through fallopian tube into the uterus. The fallopian tube connects the ovaries to the uterus. Sperm is the male cell and when it reaches the fallopian tube, it may penetrate and fertilize the ovum. When the sperm fertilizes the ovum, this is called conception.
what is infertility
infertility is the inability to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected sex
the germinal stage
conception to two weeks,
formation of a zygote. A zygote is the fertilized egg. Growth through cell division. Zygote is implanted into the lining of the uterus.
the embryonic stage
third through eight week.
cells start to develop into major systems of the body that include the heart, lungs, bones, and muscles. neural tube closes. first movements of the embryo. amniotic sac (protects the baby) is formed. placenta develops (tissue that connects the developing baby to the uterus).
the fetal stage
eighth or ninth week through birth.vocal cords and digestive system begin to develop and kidneys begin to function. Fetus starts to kick. the bodys major organs become ready to function without any help from the mother's body. fetus gains weight quickly. uses all 5 senses. can suck its thumb, cough, sneeze, yawn, kick, and hiccup. baby settles into proper position for delivery.
Compare and contrast miscarriage and stillbirth.
When the developing baby dies prior to the twentieth week of pregnancy, the event is called a miscarriage. If the baby dies after the twentieth week, it is called a stillbirth. Miscarriages are more common to occur, while stillbirth occurs in about 2 percent of pregnancies.
What are the four main causes for birth defects?
Factors in the environment (radiation, pollution, smoking, mercury), Hereditary factors, errors in chromosomes, and a combination of environmental and hereditary factors
What is a genetic counselor?
is the process by which patients or relatives at risk of an inherited disorder are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management and family planning.
blood test on the expecting mother from 15 to 20 weeks. Detects abnormal AFP levels which can cause birth defects. looking for abnormal protein in mom. No known risk
Sound waves are used to make a video image of the unborn baby. no threat
withdrawing a sample of the amniotic fluid surrounding the baby. Often used to test down syndromes. some risk
Chorionic villi sampling
prenatal test that uses a sample of the tissue from the membrane that encases the fetus to check for specific birth defects. greater risk than the amniocentesis test.
Compare fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects. How are they similar? How are they different?
FAS is an incurable condition found in some children of mothers who consumed alcohol during pregnancy. FAS includes a wide range of deformities that last a life time. Fetal alcohol effects are abnormalities caused by the mother consuming alcohol during pregnancy. These children suffer from many of the same problems as those with FAS, but to a lesser degree
Why is it critical to avoid taking medications in the first three months of pregnancy unless specifically prescribed?
drugs can cause serious birth defects, there is also no such thing as a completely safe drug for a developing fetus
Describe the possible effects on a baby of each hazard listed below.
Caffeine: When woman consumes large amounts of caffeine during pregnancy, there is an increased risk of miscarriage, premature birth, and low birth weight.
Tobacco: Respiratory infections, low birth weights, and allergies
Cocaine: All drugs in the mother's bloodstream pass through the placenta to the baby. As a result, addicted new 2borns may suffer consequences throughout their lives. Right after birth, infants with an inherited drug addiction must go through a painful period of withdrawal.
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