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Includes gorilla, orangutan, gibbon and chimpanzee. No tail, large brain; brachiating knuckle walkers


Group of extinct omnivorous bipedal hominins. Includes A. anamensis, afarensis and africanus


Walking on 2 legs. Only Australopithecus, Paranthropus and Homo genuses

Broca's area

Area of brain that produces speech

Brow ridge

Bony projection protecting eyes. Prominent in early humans


Raised back of skull holding brain

Cultural evolution

Evolution of culture (weapons, tools, art, music, ritual)


Family that include apes and humans


Middle Stone Age, characterized by fishing and foraging for wild grains


New Stone Age - age of agriculture


Old Stone Age


Genus of vegetarian hominins includes P.aethiopicus, robustus and boisei


Order that includes prosimians, monkeys, apes and humans

Sexual dimorphism

Where the male is larger and has structural differences from the female



Upper Paleolithic

Culture of Homo Sapiens

Wernicke's area

Area in the brain concerned with recognition of speech

opposable thumb

primate characteristic of having a thumb that can cross the palm and meet the other fingertips; enables animal to grasp and cling to objects.

prehensile tail

long muscular tail used as a fifth limb for grasping and wrapping around objects; characteristic of many New World monkeys.


archaic Homo sapiens that lived from 35 000 to 100 000 years ago faces with prominent noses and brains at least as large as those of modern humans


modern form of Homo sapiens that spread throughout Europe between 35 000 to 40 000 years ago; were identical to modern humans in height, skull and tooth structure, and brain size.

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