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Exam 1: BCOR102
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Gravity
Terms in this set (19)
Evolution
change in genetic structure through time!
Microevolution vs. Macroevolution
Macro-evolution includes speciation, sex, and altruism. Micro-evolution includes natural selection, migration, drift, mating, mutation.
science is...
repeatable (observations, methods), falsifiable, parsimonious (simple, Occam's razor), concilient (consistent over time)
What is deduction? Who created it? give an example
Aristotle; Going from general to specific. BEGIN WITH THEORY --> end with OBSERVATION
all ravens are black
this bird is a raven
therefore, this bird is black
What is induction? Give an example
Going from specific to general. Bacon, 1600s BEGIN WITH EXPERIMENT/OBSERVATION -> end with THEORY
these birds are ravens
all of these birds are black
therefore, all ravens are black
Walk through the inductive method:
observe something, develop a hypothesis, make a prediction, and based on repeated observations, eiher accept the hypothesis or revise it and continue the cycle
What is a Null Hypothesis
a claim of no relation --> used as a control in statistics
Walk through the Kuhnian method:
establish a paradigm (set of beliefs --> Earth is flat), attempt to solve problems, find anomalies (actually, there's plates in the ground and those continents look like they could fit together), have a crisis (omg Pangea), have a revolution, establish a new paradigm (Plate Tectonic Theory)
Describe the Popper (Hypothetico-deductive) method:
process by which multiple hypotheses are thought of with multiple distinct predictions --> tested to find the ONE TRUE hypothesis that is correct
Describe differences between inductive and hypo-deductive method:
purpose of hypothesis:
inductive --> tries to confirm
H/D --> tries to refute/find flaws
number of hypotheses:
inductive--> 1
H/D --> multiple
progress:
inductive --> seeks to modify 1 hypothesis and accumulate knowledge, based in cooperation
H/D --> tries to knock out multiple at one time, controversial and looks for flaws
problems with each:
inductive: does not consider multiple alternatives at once, may never reach the "correct" hypothesis is the original theory is wrong
deductive: doesn't consider that multiple hypotheses can be correct
What are some sources of variation?
measurement error (you measured wrong), measurement method (you measured in years and nt seconds, the process was wrong), measurement condition (field sampling is different in a snowstorm vs the summer)
biological differences --> space, time, species, age, genotype
What is Statistical P-value
The probability of obtaining the observed results if the null hypothesis were true.
Definition of a paradigm
A view of nature that implicitly defines legitimate questions and problems.
Difference between mean and variance
Mean is the measure of central tendency. Variance is the average deviation of each observation from the mean.
Ecology
Study of distribution and abundance
What is syllogism
...
How is P impacted if...
A) larger sample size
B) larger difference among groups in their means
C) larger variance within groups
A) P will be a smaller value
B) P will be a smaller value
C) P will be a larger value
Type 1 statistical error
false positive; rejected null hypothesis when you shouldn't have (the test said you had COVID when you didn't)
Type 2 statistical error
false negative; did not reject the null hypothesis when it was false (you actually had COVID and the test didn't detect it)
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