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host defenses

those that we are born with and those that we are acquired from

innate,natural defenses

present at birth that provide nonspecific resistance to infection

adaptive immunities

are specific and must be acquired

first line of defense

any barrier that blocks invasion at the portal of entry-nonspecific

second line of defense

protective cells and fluids; inflammation and phagocytosis-nonspecific

third line of defense

acquired with exposure to foreign substance; produces protective antibodies and creates memory cells-specific


the study of the body's second third lines of defense

Fnx's of a healthy functioning immune system:

surveillance of the body, recognition of foreign material, destruction of entities deemed to be foreign

white blood cells (leukocytes)

innate capacity to recognize and differentiate any foreign material


foreign material


normal cells of the body

pathogen-associated patterns (PAMPS)

molecules shared by microorganisms

pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs)

receptors on WBC's for PAMP'sneutrophils


55%-90% of wbc's, multilobed nuclei;small purple granules containing digestive enzymes. FNX is general phagocytosis. Life span 2 days,w with only 4-10 hours spent in circulation


1%-3% wbc's, Bilobed nucleus w/ lg orange granules containing toxic proteins, inflammatory mediators,and digestive enzymes. FNX is destruction of lg eukaryotic pathogens such as worms and fungi. Found in higher #'s in spleen and bone marrow.


0.5%of wbc's, pale staining contricted nuclei w/ dark blue-black granules. FNX respond to lg eukaryotic pathogens and recruit other leukocytes. Cytoplasmic granules contain histamines,prostaglandins,and chemical mediators of the allergic response.


3%-7%wbc's, largest WBC;nuclei lg,ovoid, and often indented--no cytoplasmic granules visible. FNX phagocytosis, followed by final differentiation into macrophages and dendritic cells. Monocytes also secrete chemicalks that moderatwe the fnx's of the immune system.


20%-35%wbc's Small spherical cells with uniformly staining dark, round nuclei FNX is specific (acquired) immunity. 2 types of lymphs exist Tcells responsible for cell mediated immunity, B cells are responsible for humoral immunity.

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