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APCSP unit 1
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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (25)
innovation
A new or improved idea, device, product, etc, or the development thereof
binary
a way of representing information using only two options
bit
a contraction of "binary digit"; the single unit of information in a computer, typically represented as a 0 or 1
lossless compression
a data compression algorithm that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data
lossy compression
(or irreversible compression) a data compression method that uses inexact approximations, discarding some data to represent the content. Most commonly seen in image formats like .jpg
image
a type of data used for graphics or pictures
metadata
data that describes other data. for example, a digital image may include metadata that describe the size of the image, number of colors, or resolution
pixel
short for "picture element" it is the fundamental unit of a digital image, typically a tiny square or dot which contains a single point of color of a larger image.
RGB
the RGB color model uses varying intensities of (R)ed, (G)reen, and (B)lue light are added together in to reproduce a broad array of colors
algorithm
a precise sequence of instructions for processes that can be executed by a computer
binary message
a message that can only have one of two possible values
is it possible to make a device with many different states?
it is possible but it becomes complicated to keep track of and understand the different states
why is it easier to make a device that only has two states?
the two states must be easy to distinguish between rather than using patterns of A and B (e.g. ABA or BBA) to communicate a larger number of messages
number systems
human-made sets of numbers and rules
what is important when creating number systems?
creating good rules for making pattterns with numbers or symbols
what is the basis for how binary numbers work?
with just two symbols, one could still make a binary system work
how does our natural human number system (decimal) work?
with 10 symbols, one could make a number system work
base 10 number system
the number system that allows us to express any value using 10 symbols (0-9)
binary or base 2 number system
can express any value with only two symbols (0 and 1)
place value
allows one to represent any number with any number system
what number system is used in almost all computers?
base-2 number system
what do the two number systems have in common?
they can be used in the same way and share many properties
what happens when one adds a bit to a binary sequence?
each available bit added to a binary sequence increases the maximum value that can be expressed by that binary sequence by two times
hexadecimal
a base-16 number system that uses sixteen distinct symbols 0-9 and A-F to represent numbers from 0 to 15
binary number system
256 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1
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