ch.30 and 31

italian invasion
mussolini attacks ethiopia in 1935
germany's union with austria
land between germany and france where no military is to take place
his nazi party promised to put german people back to work. he had a racist vision for the future in service of the aryan mass
a type of government that exercised massive,direct control over virtually all the activities of its subjects
fascist party
tojo hideki
leader of japan who followed the same ideals as mussolini and hitler
axis powers
the linkage between berlin,rome,and tokyo
national socialist party
led by hitler; picked up political support during the economic chaos of great depression; advocated authoriarian state under single leader
hitler's rise to power
hitler rose to power through the national socialist party. he also combined his ideals with mussolini and hideki in the idea of fascism/nazism
benito mussolini
italian fascist leader after world war i; created first fascist government based on aggressive foreign policy and nationalist glory
spanish civil war
germany and italy supported the royalists; the soviet union supported the republicans; the royalist forces won
tripartite pact
the alliance between japan,germany,and italy
nonaggression pact
hitler signed a pact with the soviet union for the soviet union gaining part of poland on september i,1939 brough the british and french to declare war on germany
lightning warfare; involved rapid movement of aiplanes,tanks, and mechanized troop carriers
henri petain
leader of french collaboration government establied in 104- in soutern france following defeatt of french armies by german
final solution
the destruction rather than the removal of the jewish people
normandy invasion
On 6 June 1944 the Western Allies landed in northern France, opening the long-awaited "Second Front" against Adolf Hitler's Germany. Though they had been fighting in mainland Italy for some nine months, the Normandy invasion was in a strategically more important region, setting the stage to drive the Germans from France and ultimately destroy the National Socialist regime.
battle of the bulge
hitler's last ditch effort to repel the inading allied armies in the winter of 1944-1945
douglas mcarthur
was America's senior military commander in the Far East during World War Two. MacArthur found fame as the officer who led America's withdrawal from the Philippines with the quote "I shall return". It was a promise that Douglas MacArthur was to fulfill.
george patton
was a United States Army officer best known for his leadership while commanding corps and armies as a general during World War II. He was also well known for his eccentricity and controversial outspokenness.
in charge of american air operations ordered mass aerial bombardment of highly vulnerable japanese cities
prepared landings in northern france that would carry the war into the fortress of the nazis
russia in 1942
german forces drove deep into russia in the spring of
peace treaty
the establishment of the united nations
members of the un
the united states,soviet union,britain,france,and china
the united states and britain were zionists who insised that jews have their own homeland
policy of strict racial segregation imposed in south africa to permit the continued dominance of whites politically and economically
algerian independence
won their independence in 1962 after a bitter civil war
the end of african colonization
atlantic charter
world war ii alliance agreement between the united states and britain; included a clause that recognized the right of all people to choose the form of government under which hey live; indicated sympathy for decolonization
marshall plan
programof substanial loans iniated by the united states in rebuilding from the wars devastation
truman doctrine
directed against communist pressures on greece and turkey
soviet provinces
latvia,lithania,and estonia
iron curtain
phrase coined by winston churchill to describe the divide between free and communist societies taking shape in europe
center for cold war
soviet union
eastern bloc
nations fovorable to the soviet union in eastern europe during the cold war-particularly poland,czechoslovakia,bulgaria,romania,hungary,and east germany
marshall plan
program of substantial loans initiated by the united states in 1947; designed to aid western nations in rebuilding from the war's deevastation; vehicle for american economic dominance
us military
us military units were stationed in europe on either side of cold war divide
christian democrats
wanted democratic institutions and moderate social reforms
federal republic of germany
france,britain,and the united states merged into this which would avoid the mistakes of earlier western republic
welfare state
new activism of the western european state in economic policy and welfare issues after world war ii; introduced programs to reduce the impat of economic inequality
new type of bureaucrat; intensely trained in engineering or economics and devoted to the power of national planning; came to fore in offices of governments following world war ii
green movement
political parties,especially in europe, focusing on environmental issues and control over economic growth
margaret thatcher
in 1979 british conservative leader who began the longest running prime ministership in 20th century; worked to cut welfare and housing expenses and to promote free enterprise
1950 economy
agricultural production; expensive consumer products support growing factories; center of weapon production. through the european union,tariffs were reduced among member nations
agricultual production
production increased rapidly, as peasant farmers,backed by technocrats adopted new equipment and seeds; less efficient than north america
women's rights
from the early 1950s the number of working women steadily increase, improved work qualifications; growing employment of women; of the western nations, switzerland wa the only one who refused women's voting rights. gains in higher education were considerable; access to divorce and birth control
simon de beauvoir
a french intellectual in 1949 who published the second sex
betty friedan
a united states femist leader who wrote the feminine mystique
western ideals
advances in scientific field in postwar years; nuclear research; arts maintaine the theme of self expression and nonreperesentational techniques
polish labor movement formed in 1970s under lech walesa; challenged ussr dominated government of poland
the tsarist regime declared war on the orthodox church and other religions after 1917, seeking to shape a secular population that would maintain a marxist, scientific orthodoxy. although the new regime did not attempt to abolish the orthodox church
alexander solzhenitsyn
russian author critial of the soviet regime but also of western materialism; published trilogy on the siberian prison camps, the gulog archipelago
soviet economy
rapid growth of manufacturing; state control of virtuallly all exonomic sectors; lagged behind in the priorities it placed on consumer goods
nikita khruschev
stalin's successor as head of ussr from 1953 to 1964; attacked stalinism in 1956 fro concentration of power and arbitrary dictorship; failure of siberian development program and antagonism of stalinists led to downfall