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Psychology Unit 1 Part 2
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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (30)
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
Overconfidence
the tendency to be more confident than correct—to overestimate the accuracy of our beliefs and judgments.
Hypothesis
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
operational definition
a carefully worded statement of the exact procedures used in a research study
Replication
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances
case study
a descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
What is a disadvantage of the case study method?
Disadvantages of using case study research are atypical individuals cases that could mislead researchers, and unrepresentative information can lead to false judgments/conclusions.
survey
a descriptive technique for obtaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group
wording effect of a survey
subtle changes in the order/wording of questions can have major effects. People are more approving of "aid to the needy" than of "welfare", of "gun safety" laws than of "gun control" laws, etc. Because wording is such a delicate matter, critical thinkers will reflect on how the phrasing of a question might affect people's expressed opinions.
Population
all those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
naturalistic observation
a descriptive technique of observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
Correlation
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other.
correlation coefficient
a statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
What is the difference between a positive and negative correlation?
A positive correlation has two sets of scores that tend to rise or fall together, while a negative correlation has two sets of scores that relate inversely, one set going up as the other goes down.
Scatterplot
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation).
illusory correlation
perceiving a relationship where none exists, or perceiving a stronger-than-actual relationship
experiment
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process ( dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the different groups
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
experimental group
In an experiment, the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
control group
in an experiment, the group not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment.
independent variable
in an experiment, the factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
dependent variable
in an experiment, the outcome that is measured; the variable that may change when the independent variable is manipulated
confounding variables
a factor other than the factor being studied that might influence a study's results
3 measures of central tendency
The 3 measures of central tendency is mean, median, and mode. A measure of central tendency is a single score that represents a whole set of the scores. The mode is the most frequently occurring score/scores, the mean is the arithmetic average, and the median is the midpoint of arranged data.
What does it mean to say that scores are skewed?
The meaning of a skewed distribution is a representation of scores that lack symmetry around their average value. A equal distribution becomes lopsided when it's skewed by a few way-out scores.
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
summarize all 5 of the APA guidlines for human research.
provide informed content, voluntary participation only, grant anonymity and confidentiality, required to debrief after, no mental and physical harm.
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