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93 terms

psy test # 3- chapter 12

abnormal psy
STUDY
PLAY
the hallucinations and distortions of perception some drugs produce are called
intoxication
a college professor's work performance recently has deteriorated, and the professor's colleagues find the professor difficult to talk to. if this is due to a problem with drugs, the best description of this professor's behavior as detailed above would be
substance abuse
a frequent drug user finds that more and more drug is necessary to produce the same "high" that much lower doses once produced. that drug user is developing
tolerance
the long-term pattern of maladaptive behavior caused by the regular use of some chemical or drug is called.
substance abuse
melanie has take a lot of the drug that she was offered and in spite of being obviously uncoordinated and under the influence she wants to drive her car. her condition is an example of
intoxication
intoxication is actually a form of
poisoning
Mendon began taking one amphetamine a day to control his appetite. after a month or so it did not work as well but two pills did. this is an example of
tolerance
jenny simply can not get up in the morning without her uppers, those little amphetamine pills her friend gave her. she feels she must take them every day. she has
substance dependence/ addiction
a newly developed drug causes users to lose some muscle control, slurring their speech and slowing central nervous system activity. most likely this new drug is a
depressants
alcohol works as a central nervous system depressant by
binding neurons to receptors
if all you know about someone is that the person has been binge drinking in the past month, then you know the person had at least
five drinks at a time at least once and is probably male
women tolerate alcohol less well then men because
less alcohol dehydrogenates (stomach enzymes)
the blood-alcohol level that typically produces the symptoms of intoxication is _____ of the blood volume
.09
a person has ingested enough ethyl alcohol to lose consciousness, but not enough to produce death. the most probably alcohol concentration in that person, expressed as a percent of blood volume is
.40
a friend of yours who has been doing some recent heavy drinking asks you what to do to "sober up" as quickly as possible. your best answer would be
time and metabolism
two people of the same gender and weight consume the same amount of alcohol in the same amount of time. nevertheless, one of them sobers up substantially sooner than the other. most likely, this difference is due to
metabolism
a full-time college student has just become a college dropout. the chances that alcohol was a factor in the dropout is about
1 in 4
one study shows that, in "substance-free" dorms, the percent of students who are binge drinkers is
36%
perhaps the most important criticism of studies of binge drinking is that they
rely on student self-reports
according to a recent study by Henry Wechsler and his colleagues at the Harvard School of Public Health, the best predictor of college binge drinking is
living in a frat or sorority house
the severe withdrawal symptoms seen in alcohol withdrawal are known as
delirium tremens
a person you know has just started experiencing delirium tremens. probably they will last
2-3 days
in what proportion of suicides and rapes in the US does alcoholism play a role
1/3
the scarring of the liver caused by alcohol consumption is known as
cirrhosis
a patient in an alcohol rehabilitation center tells you a detailed story about growing up in the mountains of Tennessee. Later, you find out that the person in fact never even visited Tennessee. a day later you visit the patient again, and the patient does not recognize you. most likely, the patient is suffering from
corsecaugh syndrome
a combination of alcohol abuse and a vitamin-B deficiency can lead to
...
Kelly is a long-time serious drinker. In the last year she has started having huge memory lapses. When this happens she makes up wild soties to help her fill in what she does not remember. this syndrome is called
confabulation
drinking alcohol during pregnancy can damage the developing embryo and fetus, resulting in
fetal alcohol syndrome
Nan took the drug she has handed and in a few minutes felt calm and drowsy, and then went to sleep. she probably took
a sedative-hypnotic drug
a pattern of mental retardation, head and facial deformities, heart defects, and slow growth characterizes one with
fetal alcohol syndrome
barbiturates were first prescribed to help people
fight anxiety and to help people sleep
the part of the brain that appears to be affected by high doses of barbiturates is the
reticular information
barbiturates primarily affect the neurotransmitter
GABA
because of the likelihood of convulsions, withdrawal from _____ is especially dangerous
barbituates
a wounded veteran of the US civil war suffering from "soldiers' disease" most likely was suffering from
addiction to morphine
if a physician wanted to relieve anxiety with a lesser risk of drowsiness, overdose, and slowed breathing, the physician would prescribe
benzodyazapines
" a powerful remedy for coughs," stated an advertisement in a 1903 medical journal, referring to a drug developed by the Elberfeld Company, called
heroin
a friend says, " I want to minimize my risks of organ damage and long-lasting mental change, " and then asks, "What kind of drug should I most avoid?" your best answer is
alcohol
the drug with the lowest risks for drug dependency and long-term behavioral change is
cannabis
after the accident, Kendra was taken to the hospital with broken legs and arms. they almost immediately gave her a shot that reduced her pain. the shot was probably
morphine
all the opioid drugs are known as
narcotics
unlike the opioid drugs morphine and heroin, methadone
synthetic
Serina has just had a shot of heroin. she feels intense pleasure very quickly. this is
a rush
the drug which would produce effects similar to what the neurotransmitters called endorphins produce---pleasurable, calming feelings--- is
heroin
during his first night in the detoxification unit, Quent developed what seemed like a case of the flu. he ached all over and had diarrhea. he was probably withdrawing from
heroin
a person who has injected a narcotic feels relaxed, happy and unconcerned about food, sex or other bodily needs. this person is experiencing what is known as
high
a heroin overdose is likely to occur when
one has been without heroin for a period of time- then takes the usual dose
why is the risk of transmitting AIDS an important factor or heroin users
dirty needles
in the past 25 years, the rate of opioid addiction in the united states has
down and up at least two times
mario felt awake and alive and as though he could conquer the world after taking
stimulant
about what percent of the population becomes dependent on cocaine at some point in their lives
3%
the withdrawal symptoms that persist for more than a few weeks are likely to result from addiction to
cocaine
ellen stopped taking her regular amount of cocaine after using it for months. she will probably experience
depression and fatigue
free-basing has the effect of making
more concentrated
"why is crack becoming more popular in the high schools?" a friend asks. your best data-based reply is
its cheap and fast
if you were trying to convince a friend not to be a cocaine user, what would you cite as the greatest risk coming from cocaine use
overdose effects
amphetamine users run an unusually high risk of becoming dependent because amphetamines
produce drug tolerance quickly
a friend asks you for advice about how to stop smoking. based on the data, your best advice to your friend would be
try aversion therapy; example= rapid smoking
the stimulant used by more people in the world than any other is
caffeine
how many cups of coffee would one have to drink to produce seizures and respiratory or circulatory failure
100
consumption of which drug has decreased among americans since the mid-1980's
caffeine
a person who took a drug an hour or two ago sits alone, quietly and intensely listening--- so the person says-- to the sap running in a tree, the leaves of which appear a brilliant purple to the drug user. most likely, the person has recently used
a hallucinogen: LSD
while under the influence of LSD, Matilda believes that she can feel the sounds around her. this effect is known as
synesthesia
what is the risk of tolerance and physical addiction to hallucinogens as compared to other addictive drugs
minimal
the chief danger of LSD use is
possibility of very powerful, sometime, negative reactions
a person takes a drug at noon. although remaining awake and alert, the person experiences poor coordination, palpitations, and greatly enhanced visual perceptions. by dinner, the symptoms have pretty well subsided. most likely that person took
LSD
at the rave a student took a drug which caused a great burst of energy, along with badly distorted visual experiences. most likely, the drug the student took was
ecstasy
months after last taking a drug, a former drug abuser still produces very little serotonin the person is depressed and anxious, and has great difficulty remembering new material. most likely, the abused drug-- if it were a single drug-- was
ex
the most powerful form of cannabis is
hashish
the duration of most of the effects of cannabis is about
3-6 hours
polysubstance use involving illegal drugs occurs in about what percent of US illegal drug users
over 60%
studies attempting to relate personality traits to potential for developing substance abuse show that
no single trait or combination predicts substance abuse
drug dependence may develop because one finds it rewarding- what approach is this an example of
behavioral
assume you have a 14-year-old child who says to you, "why can't i start drinking? a lot of my friends drink: What is the big deal?" based on the most up to date research, your best answer is
those who being drinking before age 15, are more likely to become alcoholics
the fastest way to get a drug to the brain is
inhalation
daniel an intravenous heroin user, feels intense cravings when he sees hypodermic needles. this might be an example of
classical conditioning
the ideal stimuli that gives pleasure lead to brain processes that counteract the effects of that pleasure is consistent with an explanation for drug use based on
opponent processes
if genetics plays a strong role in the development of cocaine abuse, we would expect to find the lowest concordance rates for cocaine abuse among
genetically unrelated pairs of people
adoption studies of alcoholic's children have uncovered
even if adopted at birth, if a child's biological parents were alcoholics, they are more likely to become alcoholics
assume a researcher finds that overuse of a drug reduces the body's production of neurotransmitters. thus, if an abuser of this drug stops taking the drug, withdrawal symtpms occur until the brain begins producing normal levels of neurotransmitters again. such a finding would most directly support which view of the cause of substance-abuse disorders
biochemistry
research indicates that the most important neurotransmitter in the "pleasure pathway" of the brain is probably
dopamine
a client being treated for alcohol abuse recieves just enough of a drug called curare to produce temporary paralysis just as that client takes a swig of beer. presumably, sufficient pairings of paralysis and alcohol will reduce the client's desire for alcohol. this procedure is called
aversion therapy
psychodynamic therapies may not be very effective in the treatment of substance-related disorders because
the habit actually is also a lifestyle or becomes a lifestyle
cocaine abusers on an impatient ward earn rewards-- and eventual release from the program-- if they produce periodic urine samples that are free of the drug. the program they are in is a form of
operant conditioning
jason, a recovering heavy drinker, has been trained to identify the situations that might cause him to drink and to be aware of when he should stop drinking. this approach is known as
relapse prevention training
jess thought she was taking an aspirin. but later when she had a glass of wine and became very nauseated she realized the pill was
disulfiram
the purpose of an antagonist drug is to
drugs which effects oppose each other- ex: stimulants and depressants
the use of narcotic antagonists can be dangerous. this is based on their ability to initiate
severe withdrawal
the use of methadone in drug maintenance programs is controversial because methadone
produces a withdrawal more difficult than heroin withdrawal
the fact that a self-help group like Alcoholics anonymous, which provides peer support and specific guidelines, helps many in their struggle with alocholism
socio-cultural
hanna goes to a meeting because her husband is an alcoholic who only occasionally can abstain from alcohol. the meetings with other people in similar situations helps her cope. she probably attends meetings of
alanon
most evidence for the effectiveness of self-help programs comes from
testimonials from those who have been through the program
a clinician wishes to begin a drug abuse prevention campaign in a community. the most important thing the clinician can do is to
produce consistent messages across the media about drug abuse