Terms in this set (77)
What year did the baroque period flourish?
Who were the two giants of the baroque period?
George Frideric Handle and Johann Sebastian Bach
What are the three periods of the baroque period?
Early (1600-1640) Middle (1640-1690) and Late (1690-1750)
Although most pieces best known today comes from the latest phase, the earliest was one of the ______ ________ ________.
Most revolutionary periods
Homophonic music was favored in the early baroque period, they believed that one main melody can project words more clearly. Which texture was favored during the late baroque?
During the early baroque period, composers used dissonance, the middle period gradually gave way to major and minor scales, becoming the tonal basis of most compositions; instrumental music. What arose during the baroque period?
emphasis on the attraction of the dominant chord to the tonic; instrumental became as important as vocals.
a basic mood that is expressed in a baroque piece; a baroque piece usually depicts one mood.
What are six examples of affections?
anger, love, happiness, sadness, hate, & fear.
flow of music through time, particular arrangement of note lenghts; conveys unity of mood; patterns that are heard at the beginning of a piece are repeated throughout. The beat is emphasized more.
a series of single tone that add up to a recognizable whole; gives an impression of dynamic expansion(not balance or symmetry); creates a feeling of continuity, holding constant character, with continuos expanding, unfolding, and unwinding of melody resulting in melodic sequence (successive repetition of a musical idea at higher or lower pitches).
Degree of loudness or softness. parallel with rhythm and melody. stays fairly constant for a stretch of time. When they do shift, it is sudden.
Define terraced dynamics and how is it applied to baroque music?
It is the sudden shift between loud and soft. (like physically stepping from one level to another; applied to dynamics.
Gradual changes are through crescendo and decresendo are not prominent features of baroque music? True or False
What are two main keyboard instruments of the baroque period?
organ and harpsichord
Because the organist and harpsichordist could not obtain a crescendo or decrescendo by varying finger pressure, a third keyboard was sometimes used for home use. Which instrument was it?
clavichord; could make gradual dynamic changes but only narrow range.
how many layers of sound are heard at once. dominantly polyphonic imitative.
Chords and basso continuo
the combination of three or more tones sounded at once. As composers wrote a melodic line, they thought of chords to mesh with it. (written from the bottom up)
Interest in chords gave new prominence to what?
The bass part, which served as the foundation of the harmony. The whole musical structure rested on the bass part.
The new emphasis on chords and the bass part resulted in the most characteristic feature of baroque music, an accompaniment called
basso-continuo (Italian for continuous base)
The basso continuo is usually played by?
at least two instruments: a keyboard(like organ and harpsichord) and a low melodic instrument (cello or bass)
when a keyboard player improvises chords following the indications of numbers above the base part. the base part with numbers is called the figured bass; only specify basic chords, the player is given a great deal of freedom because no specifications are given as to how it should be played
The short hand system of figured bass is similar to the chord indications found on the modern song sheets from?
Jazz pianist improvise
Why were the keyboard and low melodic instrument used?
offered the advantage of emphasizing the all important bass part
Baroque composers used music to depict the meaning of specific words
How many players in a baroque orchestra? composition?
10-40 players; at its nucleus was its basso continuo and upper strings. use of woodwind, brass, and percussion was variable
Trumpets and timpanis mainly joined the music when it was
The baroque trumphet
no valves(used to lengthen & lower pitch), but given rapid, complex melodic lines to play in a high register. because of it difficulty, the trumpeter was the aristocrat of the baroque orchestra.
Composers frequently rearranged their own or other composers works for different instruments.
a piece that sounds fairly complete and independent but is part of a larger composition.
usually each movement has its own themes, comes to a definite end, and is separated from the next movement by a brief pause; thus in three movements may contain contrasts between fast and energetic opening, a slow and solemn middle, and a conclusion that is quick, light and humorous.
a small group of soloist is pitted against a larger group of players called the tutti (all); type of genre; presents contrast between the soloist and tutti; frequently preformed by private orchestras in aristocratic palaces.
What does the tutti mainly consist of?
string, harpsichord as part of the basso continuo
Describe the concerto grosso's movement?
It usually consists of several movements that contrast in tempo and character. usually fast, slow, fast. opening movement usually vigorous and determined.
What form is the first and last movement of the concerto grossi usually in?
Define ritornello form
based on alternation between tutti and solo sections
In ritornello form, the tutti opens with a theme called
ritornello(refrain); always played by tutti returns in different keys throughout movement; usually in fragments and not complete.
a polyphonic composition based on one main theme, called a subject. Throughout a fugue, different melodic lines, called voices imitate the subject. form
the top melodic line of a fugue is usually a
soprano voice and the bottom is a bass
The texture of a fugue usually includes how many voices? Voices are what imitate the subject, does the subject remain constant?
3-5 voices; subject remains constant, it may take on new meanings when shifted to different keys or combined with different melodic and rhythmic ideas.
define counter subject
the subject in one voice is constantly accompanies in another voice by a different melodic idea; a constant companion of the subject, can either appear above or below it.
a transitional section between presentation of subject, which offer either new material or fragments of the subject and counter subject
a musical procedure, which a subject is imitated before it is completed, one voice tries to catch another
define pedal point
a musical procedure, aka organ point, in which a single tone, usually in the bass, is held while the other voices produce a series of changing harmonies against it
a fugue subject can be varied in four principal ways, which it can be turned upside down; if the subject moves upward, the inversion moves downward
by beginning with the last note of the subject and proceeding backwards to the first.
original time values are lengthened
with shortened time values
where a fugue is introduced as a short piece, called a prelude
what was key about the "organ fugue in G minor" by bach
The fugue is in minor, it ends in major chord, thought to be more conclusive
the main attraction for many opera fans, a song or solo voice with orchestral accompainiment
often lead into an aria with a recitative, a vocal line that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech
Most operas open with a purely orchestral compositions called overture or prelude
music of a overture has been drawn from material heard later in the opera, a short musical statement involves the audience in the overall dramatic mood; orchestral intros to acts in the operas other than the first are always called preludes
Origin of opera
born in italy, prepared by musical discussions among a small group of nobles, poets, and composers who began to meet regularly in Florence around 1575, the group was known as Camerata, included the composer Vincenzo Galilei.
1567-1643, one of the most important composers of early baroque period, was born in Cameron, Italy; served the court of mantua for 21 years first as singer then a violist, then music director. , created the earliest operatic masterpiece
1659-1695, great english composer; born in london
The repeated musical idea is called a
ground bass or basso ostinato
One of the main developments in instrumental music was _____
a composition in several movements for 1-8 instruments; a genre of baroque chamber music
three melodic lines: two high lines and a basso continuo
How many instruments are played in a trio sonata?
four; two high instruments, two instruments for the basso continuo, keyboard instrument, and a low instrument
played without conductor
Two types of trio sonatas
Sonata da chiesa(church sonata) and sonata da camera(chamber sonata)
1678-1741, towering figure of the late italian baroque, known as the red priest due to his religious background and red hair
define solo concerto
a piece for a single soloist and orchestra
Antonio vivalidi was best known for
450 or so concerti grosso and solo concertos
Johann Sebastian Bach
1685-1750, born in Germany, began as a church organist, then court, then concert master of the court orchestra in Weimar.
Instrumental music has always been closely linked with
dance inspired movements
Define French overture
common opening to a suite, written in two parts, first presents a slow section with dotted rhythms that is full of dignity and gradeur. The second section is quick and lighter in mood, often beginning as a fugue.
originally meant a piece that was sung, designed for lutheran service
a large scale composition for chorus, vocal soloist, and orchestra, it is usually set to a narrative text. Differs from opera because it has no costumes or dancing, stand still opera
George Federic Handel
1685-1759, master of italian opera and english oratorio, was born in Halle, Germany
Bach: Suite No. 3 in D major-Bouree
1. genre- orchestral suite
2. form- AABB (binary, dance, two-part, AB)
3. meter- duple
4. other- suite; French overture (Overture); added trumpet and timpani
Vivaldi: The Four Seasons-Spring
1. genre- concerto (solo violin)
2. form- mvt. 1- ritornello form
mvt. 2- through-composed
mvt. 3- ritornello form
3. meter- mvt. 1- quadruple (duple)
mvt. 2- triple
mvt. 3- compound
3. other- program music
Corelli: Trio Sonata in A major, Op. 3 No. 10
1. genre- chamber music
2. form- mvt. 1- AB (binary or two-part)
mvt. 2- fugue-like
mvt. 3- through-composed (played without pause)
mvt. 4- AABB (binary or two-part)
3. meter- mvt. 1- quadruple (duple), featuring dotted rhythms
mvt. 2- quadruple (duple)
mvt. 3- triple
mvt. 4- compound
4. other- trio sonata uses four (or five) instruments playing three parts: two melody
instruments and basso continuo- keyboard plus bass instrument(s); continuo theorbo
Bach: Organ Fugue in G minor "little"
1. genre- solo organ work
2. form- fugue
3. meter- quadruple (duple)
4. other- fugue subject; countersubject; exposition; sequence; episode; stretto; pedal point
Bach: Bradenburg Concerto No. 5 mvt. I Allegro
1. genre- concerto grosso (solo flute, violin, and harpsichord)
2. form- ritornello form
3. meter- quadruple (duple)
4. other- ripieno (tutti- orchestra group); concertino (solo group); ritornello; cadenza
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