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APUSH Chapters 38 & 39 Review
Terms in this set (45)
Was Attorney General under JFK; wanted to focus on recasting the FBI and fighting organized crime; shot to death by an Arab immigrant in the 1968 election, who was against his pro-Israel stand.
John F. Kennedy and civil rights
He was slow to work at civil rights reforms because was afraid to lose the Southern Democrats in congress, and therefore not be able to pass his reforms. He sent troops to protect the Freedom Riders, helped form the Voter Education Project. He committed his personal and presidential prestige to finding a solution.
John F. Kennedy
Wanted to land a person on the moon to return America to its former prestige in the space race.
Kennedy felt there wasn't much choice between humiliation and nuclear incineration in Asia. He developed an array of military "options" that could be picked out to fit the situation at hand. Increased spending on conventional military and expanded Special Forces. Negatives: lowered the level at which diplomacy would turn to shooting and provided for a progressive steeping up in the use of force.
America went in because anti-Diem agitators were threatening to overthrow the American friendly government and to foster political stability. The aerial bombing was effective in pushing the North Vietnamese to a cease fire which was hailed "peace with honor", but this rang hollow- it was actually an American retreat.
Alliance for Progress (1961)
Kennedy's Marshall Plan for Latin America. Goal was to help Latin America close the gap between the rich and poor, and thus quiet communist agitation. Results were disappointed: the Alliance did very little to improve social problems in Latin America.
Bay of Pigs
CIA wanted to kick Fidel Castro out, Kennedy sent 1,200 anti-communist exiles to revolt, it bogged down and Kennedy kept his hands off, forcing the exiles to surrender. Kennedy assumed full responsibility. Pushed Fidel Castro further into the arms of the Soviets.
Cuban Missile Crisis
The Soviets had missiles in Cuba, Kennedy ordered them to be removed and set up a naval quarantine of Cuba; told Krushchev any attack would be means to use nuclear weapons. Krushchev backed down and agreed to remove the missiles if America would remove its from Turkey along with the blockade. Disgraced Krushchev.
Civil Rights Movement
Was generally met with very violent resistance. Lyndon
Lyndon B. Johnson
More effective than Kennedy at getting his legislature through congress, even if it meant stepping on some toes. He sent the CIA (against its charter) to spy on domestic anti-war activities. He encouraged the FBI to go against the movement. The FBI even accused some "doves" of being communist, making them look like the president's police.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Banned racial discrimination in most facilities open to the public; strengthened the government's power to end segregation in schools and other public places; barred employers from discriminating based on race. Also included women.
Gulf of Tonkin resolution
Congress gave up their war declaring powers and gave the president a blank check for further force in Southeast Asia.
War on Poverty; Department of Housing and Urban Development & Department of Transportation; National Endowment for the Arts and Humanities. Big 4: aid to education, medical care for the elderly and indigent, immigration reform, and a new voting rights bill. Not completely victorious, but somewhat successful. Goal: "better lives for Americans"
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
Abolished the "national-origins" quota and doubled the number of immigrants allowed to enter annually. Allowed close family members to be excluded from the count. Immigration was largely from Asia and Latin America.
Goal: for many not all, was black separatism. Activists were less focused on civil rights and more focused on economic demands. Located mostly in the North.
Viet Cong surprised South Vietnam by attacking 27 of their key cities, including Saigon. They lost militarily, but they won politically. More and more, Americans demanded a speedy end to the war. Johnson could feel the ground shaking. American military leaders requested 200,000 more troops.
Johnson didn't run. Hubert Humphrey (VP) was his apparent heir. McCarthy and Kennedy dueled in several state primaries. Riots broke out after R. Kennedy was killed, and Humphrey gained the nomination; there would be no anti-war platform. Nixon ran for the Reps. on a "win the war" and "fight crime" platform. Independent party - Wallace. Nixon won.
1960s- why did Americans become skeptical of authority?
Young people were disillusioned by the realization that America was not free of racism, sexism, imperialism or oppression and they lost their moral rudders. Churchgoing declined, as did the sense of common values. Distrust of authority had deep roots in American culture.
Nixon believed the South Vietnamese could begin to fight their own war with American supplies. He proclaimed that the US would honor its existing defense commitments but that in the future, Asians and others would have to fight their own wars without the support of large bodies of American ground troops.
Richard Nixon's southern strategy
Appointing of conservative Supreme Court justices, soft-pedaling of civil rights, and opposing school busing to achieve racial balance. Also stressed law and order.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Outlawed literacy tests and sent federal voter registrars into several southern states. Placed a level into blacks' hands.
Opposed by "doves" through out his career. Said he didn't have to hand over incriminating tapes because he had an "executive privilege".
Vietnamese would be equipped with American equipment, but America would pull out its troops so the Vietnamese could fight their own war.
Invasion of Cambodia
Without consulting congress, Nixon ordered troops to clean out officially neutral Cambodia (as it was being used by the N. Vietnamese to get into S. Vietnam). Students responded angrily all over the country. Troops were withdrawn two months later but the incident deepened the bitterness between "hawks" and "doves"
Leaked top-secret study of the Pentagon that documented the blunders of Kennedy and Johnson in provoking of the 1964 North Vietnamese attack in the Gulf of Tonkin. More fuel for anti-war.
Period of relaxed tension in the Cold War. The US agreed to sell the USSR grain. Also, ABM treaty and SALT treaty. Policy was at least somewhat effective.
Griswold v. Connecticut
The court struck down a state law which prohibited the sale of contraceptives even to married couples. The court proclaimed a right of privacy.
Escobedo & Miranda cases
ensured the right of the accused to remain silent and enjoy other protections.
Roe v. Wade
Affirmative action-- preference in admission could not be given on the basis of race, however, the school could take racial factors into account for purposes of assembling a diverse student body.
Required construction trade unions to work toward hiring more black apprentices, i.e. affirmative action would focus on groups rather than the individual.
Environmental Protection Agency
Government organization signed into law by Nixon in 1970 designed to regulate pollution, emissions, and other factors that negatively influence the environment. The creation of the EPA marked a newfound commitment by the federal government to actively combat environmental risks and was a significant triumph for the environmentalist movement.
Dedicated to improving work conditions, preventing work-related accidents, and issuing safety standards. Gave the federal government a lot more control to regulate companies, which big business owners disliked.
1973 War Powers Act
Required the president to report to congress within 48 hours after committing troops to a foreign conflict or "substantially" enlarging American combat units in a foreign country. Such an authorization would expire unless Congress extended it 30 more days. One manifestation of the "New Isolationism".
Egypt and Syria went after territory they had lost in the Six-Day War. Kissinger flew to Moscow to stop the USSR from arming the attackers. Nixon put America's nuclear forces on alert and gave $2 million in war material to Israel. Israel came out unhurt. OPEC then announced an embargo on oil to the US, and they cut their production, thus began the energy crisis.
The Republican Committee to Re-elect the President (CREEP) was caught placing bugs in the Democratic Party's headquarters at the Watergate hotel. Nixon denied prior knowledge of the scandal. John Dean and others revealed this wasn't true. Nixon refused to hand over the tapes until the court forced him to; they incriminated him. He was to be impeached for obstruction of the justice, but resigned. Proved the constitution was effective but widened the credibility gap.
First unelected president; 12-term congressman from Michigan. He was largely disliked and seen as dumb. Pardoned Nixon for any crimes he may have committed as president.
Forbade discrimination based on sex in any federally assisted educational institution. Led to an increase in women's and girls' sports.
Attempt at continuing detente with the USSR by recognizing USSR dictated borders in Eastern Europe. In exchange, the USSR promised more communication between east and west and to provide "human rights". Germans cheered, but some Eastern Europeans were dissident. Americans felt detente was a one-way street. The USSR broke the deal also by invading Jewish citizens' rights.
Equal Rights Amendment
Proposed amendment to the constitution which would ban discrimination in all sense, based on sex. Passed by congress, but not ratified by enough states. Created anti-feminist sentiment.
American Indian activists
Used the courts and civil disobedience to gain power. Captured Alacatraz and Wounded Knee, SD to get attention. Congress said they had sovereignty from the states as their own nation but not from Congress.
He touched people with his down-home sincerity. People were attracted to him because he was a Washington outsider. Won the vote of the South and the blacks.
His guiding principle for foreign policy was "human rights". His greatest foreign policy achievement was the meeting he arranged between Anwar Sadat of Egypt and Menachem Begin of Israel at Camp David where Israel agreed to return territories gained in the 1967 war and Egypt agreed to respect Israeli boundaries.
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty agreement between Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev and Jimmy Carter. Despite an accord to limit weapons between the two leaders, the agreement was ultimately scuttled in the US Senate following the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979.
1973 - Arab Oil Embargo, 1975 - Fall of Saigon, 1979 - USSR invasion of Afghanistan, 1979-81 - Iranian Hostage Crisis
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