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8th Century Prophets
Introduction and Amos
Terms in this set (112)
What is the Greek Word for Prophet?
prophetes (pro- "before, forth", phemi- "to speak"- emphasizes function)
What are the 2 interpretation of prophetes?
What is the primary Hebrew word for prophet?
nabi' ("One who is called"- emphasizes relationship)
Who is the first nabi'?
Abraham or Moses
What is the difference between major and minor prophets?
Size (not importance)
Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings are the ______ Prophets.
Isaiah, Jeremiah, Amos, and Obadiah are examples of ________ Prophets.
Elijah, Nathan, Samuel, Elisha, and Huldah are examples of ______-__________ Prophets
Malachi, Amos, Jeremiah, Obadiah, and Isaiah are examples of _________ Prophets.
Which prophets were:
•Often part of a Prophetic Group
•Prophesied by means of the Spirit
•Sought out for their Prophecy
•Prophesied primarily to the King
•Often performed Miracles
What are some differences between Amos and the Pre-Classical Prophets?
•No connection to prophetic groups
•Word of Yahweh versus Spirit of Yahweh
•Amos prophesied for a limited period
•Amos prophesied to the people, not King
•Amos proclaimed a radical new message: God is coming to judge Israel
What new social class emerged in the 8th century?
Wealthy Middle Class
What were new methods of prophecy in the 8th century?
oratory and written prophecy
Who was a political threat in the 8th century?
Who did the first Classical Prophets prophesy to?
Northern Kingdom of Israel
Which kingdom was militarily and economically more powerful and
more influenced by Canaanite/Phoenician fertility religion
In what year did Samaria fall?
Who was the last Classical Prophet?
Who was the first king of Northern Kingdom of Israel?
Jeroboam I (ca. 922-901 BC)
In the 9th century, the Northern Kingdom of Israel had ongoing conflict with ________.
Syria (Aram) (Period of Elijah and Elisha, Ahab and Jezebel)
What were the focus points of contention between Israel and Syria?
Gilead and Bashan
In 802 BC, Assyria destroyed __________ under Adad-nirari III.
After taking over Syria, Adad-nirari returned to returned Assyria to quell a _____.
revolt (and he never returned to Levant)
Who was the king of the Northern Kingdom in the early 8th century?
Jeroboam II (ca. 786-746)
How was Jeroboam II as a political leader?
Very capable and successful ruler, took advantage of power vacuum, Expanded borders of Israel (Borders of Israel and Judah approximated Empire of David and Solomon)
What was the Northern Kingdom of Israel like in the 8th century?
Expansion brings Prosperity to Israel, Tribute from Conquered Peoples, Control of Trade Routes, Rise of wealthy Merchant Class, Spiritual Sickness
What is the structure of Amos?
•Superscription and Opening Oracle (1:1-2)
•Oracles against the Nations (1:3-2:16)
•Oracles of Reproof (3:1-5:17)
•Oracles of Woe (5:18-6:14)
•Visions of Judgment (7:1-9:10)
•Oracles of Future Hope (9:11-15)
What does Amos's name mean?
"to carry, bear"
What is unusual about the name "Amos" as a prophet?
unique name in Old Testament, No Theophoric Element, No Patronymic (name of his father)
What was Amos's profession?
sheep breeder (noqed), herdsman, dresser of sycamore trees
What was Amos's background?
layperson, agriculturalist, probably moderately wealthy
Where was Tekoa?
10 miles South of Jerusalem in the Tribe of Judah
Tekoa is on the edge of eastern wilderness, an area known for _________.
wisdom (Wise Woman of Tekoa - 2 Sam 14)
Amos was a _________ prophet in the _______.
Who was the king of Judah during Amos's time as a prophet?
Uzziah (•783-743 B.C.)
When was "the earthquake"?
c. 760 B.C. (May suggest that Amos had a relatively short prophetic ministry)
Amos often uses _________ Parallelism
Synonymous (repeats same idea in 2 different ways)
Type of poetic parallelism where the second line of a poetic couplet is the opposite of the first line.
A literary technique of Hebrew poetry in which a second line expands on the idea of the first line.
A device used in Hebrew poetry in which the same idea is expressed in two adjacent lines but in different words, thus expanding and emphasizing the idea in a balanced composition.
What is the theme of Amos?
Yahweh is a Roaring Lion (Yahweh is a terrifying force. He is bringing judgment against his covenant people, Israel)
Who is the primary audience of the oracles against the nations?
The oracles against the nations are arranged ____-_________ in relation to Israel and Judah
What is the literary pattern in the oracles against the nations?
Opening Formula ("Thus says the LORD"), Indictment:
("For three transgressions of . . . and for four, I will not revoke the punishment; because they . . . ."), Judgment ("So I will send fire . . . ."), Concluding Formula
("says the LORD.")
"For three transgressions . . . and for four" is an example of __________ parallelism
number (pattern: X, X+1, characteristic of wisdom literature)
What was the sin of Damascus?
What was the sin of Gaza?
What was the sin of Tyre?
What was the sin of Edom?
Pursued Brother with Sword
What was the sin of Ammon?
What was the sin of Moab?
Burned Bones of King
What was the sin of Judah?
Rejected Law of Yahweh
How many sins of Israel are listed in the oracles against the nations?
Amos regards Yahweh as Sovereign over _____ nations
Yahweh has the right to judge _____ nations
Judah and Israel, though God's elect, are still subject to Divine __________
God holds Judah and Israel to a _______ standard
What is the structure of the oracle against Israel?
What is an indictment?
"A formal written statement charging a person with a crime"
What are the Four Crimes of Israel?
Selling innocent into slavery (6)
Perverting justice to the powerless (7a)
Illicit sexual intercourse (7b)
Using religion to defraud (8)
What does righteous (tsaddiq) mean?
Someone who is innocent (legal term)
What does needy ('ebyon) mean?
Those in need of protection
What might be the significance of sandals in the perversion of justice?
sandals may be connected with legal transactions in Israel
What does poor (dallim) mean?
material poverty (God's special concern for the poor—1 Sam. 2:8)
What does afflicted ('anavim) mean?
Those destitute as a result of injustice
What are the three possible interpretations of Amos 2:7b (Illicit sexual intercourse)
Sacred Prostitution, Incest between a man and his daughter-in-law, Violation of a slave-girl
What are the "garments taken in pledge" in Amos 2:8?
garments taken as a pledge for debtor to pay back debt (supposed to be given back at night so that poor can stay warm but religious leaders were keeping them overnight for their own comfort)
What does Heilsgeschichte mean?
"Salvation History"- An account of God's saving acts in History (reveals Yahweh's nature and character)
In Amos, Heilsgeschichte is transformed into ________.
What is Amos's new message?
God will judge Israel!
What are the two parts of Yahweh's judgment of Israel?
Yahweh acts directly in judgment (13)
Military Defeat (14-16)
Chapters 3, 4, & 5 each begin with...
"Hear this word"
What is the theme of the oracles of reproof?
Indictment & Judgment of Israel
Amos 3:1-2 serves as the ....
Theological Foundation of Amos' Message
Amos uses what types of questions in 3:38-8?
Rhetorical (or Proverbial) Questions
What is the function of Amos's rhetorical questions?
Gains agreement of audience, Might soften a hostile crowd
Amos speaks not for personal gain, but only because ______ has spoken
Who are ironically called as witnesses in Amos 3:9-15?
Philistia & Egypt
What/Who does God pronounce judgment on in Amos 3:14-15
The temple and the rich
What were the functions of the horns on the altar?
functioned as andirons for the sacrifices and place of refuge for those seeking Asylum
Why did Amos preach about the destruction of the houses of the wealthy?
They got their wealth from the oppression and mistreatment of others.
Who are called the cows of Bashan?
women of Samaria (not necessarily an insult)
The judgment of God comes out of His ________.
What is the fate of the 'cows of Bashan'?
Amos's prophesies of judgment are _______ on Israel's response.
True prophets (did/did not) want their prophesies of judgment to come true.
did not (wanted people to repent)
What were the 5 catastrophes God sent as warning signs to Israel?
Famine, Drought, Blight and Locusts, Pestilence and War, Destruction like Sodom and Gomorrah
The call to Lamentation has a _______ structure. What are the parts of the structure?
A Funeral Lament (vss 1-3)
B Exhortation: Seek Yahweh! (vss 4-6)
C Indictment (vss 7-13)
B Exhortation: Seek Good! (vss 14-15)
A Funeral Lament (vss 16-17)
What is prolepsis?
The representation of a future development as if presently existing
•"Fallen, no more to rise, is maiden Israel" is an example of ______.
prolepsis (Israel appears healthy and prosperous, but, in reality, she is as good as dead)
What is hendiadys?
one through two (ex. justice and righteousness)
What is wormwood?
a bitter plant
Knowing what is right (intellectually/philosophically)
Doing what is right
"Alas! alas!" or "Woe! woe!" are ______ __ __________
cries of morning (hoy- used at funerals, another ex. of prolepsis)
What is the function of the hymn form?
It praises God for his Attributes, especially his power and majesty (It often focuses on Creation)
What is the function of hymn fragments in Amos?
They remind Israel who that their God is not like all the other gods of other nations. He is the LORD who has created everything and deserves all the glory and praise. He is Holy and cannot be placated. He must judge sin.
Amos 5:18-6:14 is the ______ ___ ____.
oracles of woe
What is yom Yahweh?
The Day of the LORD
Amos 5:18 is, chronologically, first instance, yet Amos didn't invent ___ _____ ___ ____ _______
the day of the LORD
What is the origin of the Day of the LORD tradition?
Holy War Tradition- Yahweh appears to destroy Israel's enemies
The Israelites longed for God to punish their enemies on the ____ __ ____ _____ but ______ is God's enemy!
day of the LORD, Israel
Amos uses two ______ _______ to illustrate that when you (Israel) think you are safe, you are actually in mortal danger.
Amos rejects any thought that ______will negate the coming judgment
Why did God reject the Cult?
The absence of justice and righteousness
Amos uses the image of an _____-_______ stream (like a wadi that never dries up) to illustrate how the justice and righteousness of Israel should flow continually
What are the two meanings of the water imagery in Amos 5:24- "But let justice roll down like waters,
And righteousness like an ever-flowing stream"
Water is a life-giving substance and an irresistible force.
Amos contrasts the ________ of the rich with the _____ of the nation.
Who shall be the first to go into exile?
What is similar in Amos's first four visions?
Introductory Formula ("This is what the LORD God showed me"), Content of Vision, Dialogue between Amos and Yahweh
What are the differences between Amos's 1st/2nd and 3rd/4th visions?
Visions 1-2 need no interpretation and Amos intercedes for Israel in 1-2, •Visions 3-4 are "show and tell" visions, Each centers on a common object, Yahweh must interpret these visions, Amos does not intercede on Israel's behalf
How is Jacob small?
spiritually small and weak (Amos begs for forgiveness)
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