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Biology: The Chemistry of Life
Terms in this set (173)
What are the two forms of inquiry in the study of nature?
science and the scientific method
Who came up with the scientific method?
Sir Francis Bacon
What are the steps of the scientific method?
reasoning from detailed facts to general principles
reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case (The sun rises every morning; therefore, the sun will rise on Tuesday morning.)
Information describing color, odor, shape, or some other physical characteristic
describes a relationship in nature that is supported by many experiments. Sometimes an equation
a well-tested explanation for a set of observations or experimental results
science that seeks to expand knowledge regardless of the short-term application of that knowledge (discoveries)
The practical use of scientific information to improve human life (inventions)
what are the six major properties of life?
2. response to environment
5. energy processing
6. evolutionary adaptation
Organisms interact with their environments, exchanging what?
matter and energy (energy transfer and transformation, information flow)
what is the overarching theme of biology?
what is the theory of evolution?
organisms living on earth are modified descendants of common ancestors
what are the big three domains?
bacteria, eukaryotes, and archae
who came up with the idea of the big three domains?
what saying expresses evolutionary history?
Which domains are prokaryotic?
Bacteria and Archaea
which domains are eukaryotic?
what type of evidence do we have for evolution?
fossils and molecular evidence
what is bioinformatics?
the science of collecting and analyzing complex biological data such as genetic codes
what is genomics?
the study of genomes
Charles Darwin came up with the theory of natural selection. What does this theory state?
organisms evolve traits in response to survival. In other words, "SURVIVAL OF THE FITTEST"
what are the levels of organization?
Anything that has mass and takes up space
A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical reactions
a substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio
physical properties of molecules depend on what?
the arrangement of atoms
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
when radioactive isotopes decay, what do they give off?
particles and energy
how do radioactive isotopes help in biological research?
-tracing atoms through metabolic processes
-diagnostic medical imaging
what is the octet rule?
Atoms tend to gain, lose or share electrons in order to have a full set of valance electrons
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
A positively charged ion
A negatively charged ion
Bonds created by sharing electrons with other atoms
Very weak bonds; occurs when a hydrogen atom in one molecule is attracted to the electrostatic atom in another molecule. Results in polar molecules
nonpolar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally by the two atoms
polar covalent bond
A covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally
van der waals interactions
individually weak and occur only when atoms and molecules are very close together
what is the biological medium on earth?
cells are about what percent water?
what allows water molecules to form hydrogen bonds with each other?
what are the four properties of water?
1. cohesive behavior
2. ability to moderate temperature
3. expansion upon freezing
4. versatility as a solvent
hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together
A measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
cohesiveness helps water do what?
move from the root to plant via channels (xylem)
heat of evaporation
the heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g to be converted to gas
Water absorbs heat from ______ air and releases stored heat to ______ air
water can absorb or release large amounts of heat with only a ___ change to its temperature
expansion on freezing
ice floats in liquid water because
hydrogen bonds in ice are more "ordered," making ice less dense
water reaches its greatest density at
water is a versatile solvent due to its
polarity, which allows it to form hydrogen bonds easily
ionic bonds are soluble in water because water forms a __ around them
large polar molecules can dissolve in water if
they have ionic and polar regions
Attracted to water
an acid is a proton donor and a base is a proton acceptor
pH less than 7 (increases H of a solution)
pH greater than 7 (reduces H of a solution)
what are the threats to water quality on earth?
-CO2 released by fossil fuel combustion
damages life in lakes, streams, and forests
warming that results when solar radiation is trapped by the atmosphere
acidification of the ocean results in
cells are mostly water, the rest is mostly made up of what?
carbon is unparalleled in its ability to form
large, complex, and diverse molecules (proteins, carbs, DNA)
organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen
compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and properties
differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms
have the same covalent bonds but differ in spatial arrangements
isomers that are mirror images of each other
large molecules (polymers) composed of building blocks (monomers)
what are the main macromolecules?
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids
A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
what are sugars and polymers of sugars?
what are the simplest carbs?
many monosaccharides linked together
2 monosaccharides linked together by dehydration synthesis
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction (disaccharide)
storage polysaccharides of plants consisting of glucose monomers
storage polyaccharide of animals; stored in the liver and in muscle cells
structural polysaccharide in plants
structural polysaccharide that gives cockroaches their crunch
macromolecule that does not go under polymerization; nonpolar
works as insulation and shock absorber
source of stored metabolic energy
form the structural matrices and permeability barriers in membranes
work as messengers (i.e. hormones)
what are the classes of the lipids?
fats, phospholipids, steroids, and waxes
constructed from glycerol and fatty acids
testosterone, estradiol, progesterone,cortisol,aldosterone
make up more than 50% of the dry mass of cells
assist in the proper folding of proteins
store and transmit hereditary information
what is the function of DNA?
store genetic information
what is the function of RNA?
Transmits genetic information
What are pyrimidines?
cytosine, thymine, uracil
what are the purines?
Adenine and Guanine
what are the basic features of all cells?
plasma membrane, cytosol, chromosomes, ribosomes
the ___ is critical to cell life; states that small cells have a greater surface area relative to volume
surface to volume ratio
contains most of the cell's genes and is usually the most conspicuous organelle
DNA and Histones form genetic material called
chromatin condenses to form
the site of ribosomal RNA synthesis
all organelles are surrounded by a ___
double lipid bilayer
what are the components of the endomembrane system?
nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, plasma membrane
accounts for more than half of the total membrane in eukaryotic cells
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum that is free of ribosomes
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes
functions of smooth ER
makes lipids, detoxifies poisons, and stores calcium
functions of rough ER
makes proteins, distributes transport vesicles
consists of flattened mebranous sacs called cisternae
Functions of Golgi Apparatus
modifies products of ER, makes certain macromolecules, sorts and packages materials into transport vesicles
a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules
mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own __
captures light energy in plants
organizes structures and activities in the cell
channels through cell walls that connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells in plants and algae. Allows water and small solutes to pass
what type of intercellular junctions are found in animal cells?
tight junctions, desmosomes, and gap junctions
membranes of neighboring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid
fasten cells together into strong sheets
Desmosomes (anchoring junctions)
provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells
formed by phagocytosis
pump excess water out of the cell
hold organic compounds and water in plant cells
sites of cellular respiration, a metabolic process that uses oxygen to generate ATP
sites of photosynthesis in plants and algae
shorter wavelength (higher frequency) microscopes provide ___ resolution
Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
A microscope that uses an electron beam to study the surface architecture of a cell or other specimen.
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
used to study the internal structure of cells
Laser (confocal) scanning microscope
uses lasers and computers to obtain high resolution images
separates the living cell from its surroundings
size, polarity, and charge of crossing material are all factors of a ____ membrane
a membrane is a fluid structure with a "mosaic" of various proteins embedded in it
fluid mosaic model
phospholipids are ___ molecules
have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties
Membranes must be ___ to work properly
unsaturated fatty acids are ___ fluid than saturated fatty acids
proteins bound to the outside of the membrane
proteins that penetrate the hydrophobic cone in the membrane
proteins that span the membrane
what are the five major functions of membrane proteins?
transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell-cell recognition, attach other cells
what type of molecules cross the selectively permeable membrane easily?
what type of molecules do not cross the selectively permeable membrane easily?
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane is called
Solute concentration is greater than that inside the cell; cell loses water
Solute concentration is less than that inside the cell; cell gains water
no net water movement across the membrane
water balance that causes shriveled animal cells and plasmolyzed plant cells
water balance that causes lysed animal cells and normal plant cells
water balance that causes normal animal cells and flaccid plant cells
diffusion of a substance across a membrane down a concentration gradient (no energy investment)
Type of transport that requires energy
transport that requires protein but no energy
allow molecules and ions impermeable to membrane to cross
bind to molecules and shuttle them across the membrane
the voltage difference across a membrane
created by differences in the distribution of positive and negative ions across a membrane
The combination of forces that acts on membrane potential.
the electrochemical gradient is made up of what forces?
a chemical force and an electrical force
occurs when active transport of a solute indirectly drives transport of other solutes
large molecules cross the membrane in bulk via vesicles (requires energy), in what two ways can they do this?
exocytosis and endocytosis
release of substances out a cell by the fusion of a vesicle with the membrane.
forms vesicles from the plasma membrane, which then takes in macromolecules
what are the three types of endocytosis?
phagocytosis, pinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis
molecules are taken up when extracellular fluid is "gulped" into tiny vesicles
binding of ligands to receptors triggers vesicle formation
molecules that bond specifically to a receptor site of another molecule
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