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Human Geography Chapter 3: Migration
Terms in this set (54)
A form of relocation diffusion involving a permanent move to a new location. A form of mobility. Geographers study this in part because it is important in explaining changes in population in various places and regions. When people do this, they take with them their cultural values and economic practices.
All types of movements between locations. College students do this seasonally, by moving to a residence hall each fall and returning home the following spring.
Short-term, repetitive, or cyclical movements that recur on a regular basis.
E. G. Ravenstein
A 19th century geographer who wrote 3 principles for where and why migration occurs:
-The distance that migrants typically move.
-The reasons why migrants move.
-The characteristics of migrants.
A change in the migration pattern in a society that results from the social and economic changes that also produce the demographic transition. Identified by geographer Wilbur Zelinsky. It states that international migration is primarily a phenomenon of countries in stage 2 of the demographic transition, whereas internal migration is more important in stages 3 and 4.
Permanent movement from one country to another. Makes up 9% of the world's people.
Permanent movement undertaken by choice. A type of international migration. Usually for economic reasons, though sometimes for environmental reasons.
Permanent movement, compelled by cultural or environmental factors. A type of international migration.
Permanent movement within a particular country. Most countries permit people to migrate this way, and thus these migrants are much more numerous than international migrants. Most people find this migration less traumatic because they find familiar language, foods, broadcasts, literature, music, and other social customs after they move.
The farther away a place is located, the less likely people will migrate to it. Explains internal migration.
Permanent movement from one region of a country to another. A type of internal migration. Historically, the main type of this has been from rural to urban areas in search of jobs.
Permanent movement within one region of a country. A type of internal migration. The main type of this has been within urban areas, from older cities to newer suburbs.
Migration from a location.
Migration to a new location.
The difference between the level of immigration and the level of emigration. If the number of immigrants exceeds the number of emigrants, this is positive, and the region has net in-migration. If the number of emigrants exceeds the number of immigrants, this is negative, and the region has net out-migration.
3 Eras of US Immigration
-Colonial settlement in the 17th and 18th centuries.
-Mass European immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
-Asian and Latin American immigration in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.
Immigration Reform and Control Act
An act signed by Ronald Reagan in 1986 which issued visas to several hundred thousand people who had entered the United States in previous years without legal documents.
Hugging the Coast
A shift in the US population center. This location reflects the fact that virtually all colonial-era settlements were near the Atlantic Coast. Few colonists ventured far from coastal locations because they depended on shipping links with Europe to receive products and to export raw materials. The Appalachian Mountains also initially hindered western development because of their steep slopes, thick forests, and few gaps that allowed easy passage. Native Americans still occupied large areas and sometimes resisted the expansion of colonial settlement.
Crossing the Appalachians
A shift in the US population center. Transportation improvements, especially the building of canals in the northeast, helped to open the interior. Most important was the Erie Canal, which enabled people to travel inexpensively by boat between New York City and the Great Lakes. In 1840, the United States had 5,352 kilometers (3,326 miles) of canals. Encouraged by the opportunity to obtain a large amount of land at a low price, people moved into forested river valleys between the Appalachians and the Mississippi River. They cut down the trees and used the wood to build homes, barns, and fences.
Rushing to the Gold
A shift in the US population center. It shifted westward much more rapidly during this period. The principal pull to California was the Gold Rush, beginning in the late 1840s. Pioneers during this period also passed over the Great Plains because of the physical environment. The region's dry climate, lack of trees, and tough grassland sod convinced leaders such as Thomas Jefferson and explorers such as Zebulon Pike that the region was a desert unfit for farming.
Filling in the Great Plains
A shift in the US population center. The westward movement slowed during this period because emigration from Europe to the East Coast offset most of the emigration from the East Coast to the U.S. West. Also, immigrants began to fill in the Great Plains that earlier generations had bypassed. Advances in agricultural technology enabled people to cultivate the area.
A shift in the US population center. It resumed a more vigorous westward migration. It also moved southward, as Americans migrated to the South for job opportunities and a warmer climate. The rapid growth of population and employment in the South has aggravated interregional antagonism. Interregional migration has slowed considerably in the United States into the 21st century.
International Migration: China
In developing countries, the predominant flow of interregional migration is from rural to urban areas where jobs are more likely to be available. More than 150 million Chinese have emigrated from rural areas in the interior of the country. They are headed for the large urban areas along the East Coast, where jobs are especially plentiful in factories. The government once limited interregional movement for they believed most Chinese should live in rural areas and work in agriculture in fear of poor living conditions. in recent years, China's government has lifted many of the restrictions on migration. China's urban areas are among the world's most modern and rapidly growing.
Interregional Migration: Brazil
Most Brazilians live in a string of large cities near the East Coast. Brazil's tropical interior is sparsely inhabited. To increase the attractiveness of the interior, the government moved its capital in 1960 from Rio de Janeiro to a newly built city called Brasília, situated 900 kilometers (600 miles) from the Atlantic Coast. Development of Brazil's interior has altered historic migration patterns into the large urban areas along the coast. The coastal areas now have net out-migration, whereas the interior areas have net in-migration.
Interregional Migration: Canada
Canada, like the United States, has had interregional migration primarily from east to west for more than a century. Between 2011 and 2017, Alberta had the largest net in-migration and Québec the largest net out-migration. The three largest interprovincial flows in Canada are from Ontario to Alberta, from British Columbia to Alberta, and from Alberta to British Columbia.
Interregional Migration: Russia
The population of Russia is highly clustered in the western, or European, portion of the country. To open up the sparsely inhabited Asian portion of Russia, interregional migration was important in the former Soviet Union. Soviet policy encouraged factory construction near raw materials rather than near existing population concentrations. To build up an adequate labor force, the Soviet government had to force people to undertake interregional migration. In recent years, this pattern has reversed, with net in-migration to the western regions bordering Europe where the largest cities and job opportunities are clustered.
Net migration from rural to urban areas in developed countries. Most people who migrate this way seek economic advancement. They are pushed from their homes by declining opportunities in agriculture, such as having to pay higher rents for farmland, and are pulled to the cities by the prospect of work in factories or in service industries.
Net migration from urban to suburban areas in developed countries. Most people migrating in this manner are attracted by a suburban lifestyle. Suburbs offer the opportunity to live in a detached house rather than an apartment, surrounded by a private yard where children can play safely.
Net migration from urban to rural areas in developed countries. Some are lured to rural areas by the prospect of swapping the frantic pace of urban life for the opportunity to live on a farm, where they can own horses or grow vegetables. Others move to farms but do not earn their living from agriculture; instead, they work in nearby offices, small town shops, or other services.
A factor that induces people to leave old locations. To migrate, people view their current place of residence no negatively that they feel repelled away.
A factor that induces people to a new location. To migrate, people view another place so positively that they feel attracted to it.
An environmental or cultural feature of the landscape that hinders migration. The principal obstacle traditionally faced by migrants to other countries was environmental: the long, arduous, and expensive passage over land or by sea. Transportation improvements have diminished environmental obstacles. Today, the major obstacles faced by most immigrants are political.
Migration that follows a path of a series of stages or steps toward a final destination.
Indian Removal Act
An act in 1830 that authorized the US Army to remove five Native American tribes from their land in the southeastern United States and move them to an area now included in the state of Oklahoma. A form of forced political migration in the US during the 19th century.
Trail of Tears
A long, arduous trek to the west resulting from the forced migration of Native American tribes. ~46,000 Native Americans were uprooted, and many of them died on the path.
People who are forced to migrate from their home country and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion. nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion. One of three groups of people forced to migrate for political reasons. The largest numbers of these people migrated from the Middle East because of continuing civil wars in those countries.
Internally Displaced Person (IDP)
Someone who has been forced to migrate for similar political reasons as a refugee but has not migrated across an international border. One of three groups of people forced to migrate for political reasons.
Someone who has migrated to another country in the hope of being recognized as a refugee. One of three groups of people forced to migrate for political reasons.
The area subject to flooding during a given number of years, according to historical trends. An example of forced environmental migration. Many people are forced to move by water-related disasters because they live in a vulnerable area.
A pull factor and a form of environmental migration. Pleasing environments for migrants include mountains, seasides, and warm climates.
Economic Migration: Developing Countries
People unable to migrate permanently to a new country for employment opportunities may be allowed to migrate temporarily. Asia is both a major source and a major destination for migrants in search of work.
Economic Migration: Developed Countries
The United States and Canada have been especially prominent destinations for economic migrants. The United States and Canada especially offered European immigrants prospects for economic advancement.
Transfer of money by workers to people in the country from which they emerged. Migrants who find work in another country frequently send a portion of the wages they have earned to relatives back home.
Gender & Age of Migrants
Ravenstein noticed particular trends in his migration principles:
-Most long-distance migrants were male.
-Most long-distance migrants were adult individuals rather than families with children.
He theorized that most long-distance migrants were young adults seeking work rather than children or elderly people. To contrast this theory, many more females have migrated to developed countries because:
-Women in the labor force attract migrant women searching for jobs.
-Some developed countries have made it possible for wives to join husbands who have already migrated.
A person who enters the country without proper documents to do so. A result of some countries', such as the US, strict immigration policies.
The legal restrictions for a country that determine what types of immigrants are allowed. These are influences by a number of factors:
The UN classifies countries according to four types of these:
1. Maintain the current level of immigration.
2. Increase the level.
3. Decrease the level.
4. No policy.
In reference to migration, a law that places maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to a country each year. The US did not used to have these until the Emergency Quota Act in 1921.
Emergency Quota Act
An act signed in 1921 that restricted the number of immigrants admitted from any country annually to 3 percent of the number of residents from that same country living in the United States in 1910. Quotas were enacted following recommendations of the Dillingham Commission, which had been set up by Congress in 1907 to investigate the effects of immigration.
Large-scale emigration by talented people. Scientists, researchers, doctors, and other professionals migrate to countries where they can make better use of their abilities. The countries from which they emigrated could then be left with shortages of skilled professionals.
Migration because people to a specific location because relatives previously migrated there.
A region that separates the United States from Mexico. At 3,145 kilometers long, rural areas and small towns are guarded by only a handful of agents. Crossing it on foot legally is possible in some places. 1/4 of it was covered by the United States with a barrier.
European Immigration Issues
Issues that rise from the increasing number of immigrants moving towards Europe. The ease with which people are able to cross borders into Europe and among countries within Europe has been controversial. Hostile parties blame immigrants for crime, unemployment, and high welfare costs. Above all, the anti-immigration parties fear that long-standing cultural traditions of the host country are threatened by immigrants who adhere to different religions, speak different languages, and practice different food and other cultural habits. From the standpoint of these parties, immigrants represent a threat to the centuries-old cultural traditions of the host country.
A term once used for a worker who migrates to the developed countries of Northern and Western Europe, usually from Southern and Eastern Europe or from North Africa, in search of a higher-paying job. They were protected by minimum-wage laws, labor union contracts, and other support programs.
The temporary movement of a migrant worker between home and host countries to seek employment. Guest workers were expected to return to their countries of origin once their work was done.
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