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two or more people who consider themselves related by blood marriage or adoption


people who occupy the same housing unit

nuclear family

a family consisting of a husband wife and child(ren)


a form of marriage in which men have more that one wife


a form of marriage in which women have more than one husband

family of orientation

the family in which a person grows up

family of procreation

the family formed when a couples first child is born


system of reckoning decent that only counts the mothers side


system of reckoning decent that only counts the fathers side


system of reckoning decent that counts both mom and dads side


practice of marrying within ones group


practice of marrying outside ones group


dual income no kids

boomerang children

kids who strike out on their own but then find the cost or responsibility too great and return home, often several times

fictive kin

people who have helped out in the hard times who people owe obligations to as if they were blood relatives or men who are not the biological fathers of their children are given fatherhood status

skipped generation family

grandparents rear their grandchildren parents are incapable of caring for their children

main difference between cohabitation and marriage

adults that live together in a sexual relationship with out being married

sandwich generation

people who find themselves sandwiched together between and responsible for two other generations, children and aging parents

role confusion

incest taboo: father screws daughter: look at him as dad or lover, look at mom as mother, rival, or first wife

gender division of labor

husband takes primary responsibility for earning the income and wives primary responsibility for taking care of the house and children

greatest influence on marital homogamy

marry people who have similar characteristics to each other

kohns discovery about how parents socialize their children

the norms of their work environment

serial fatherhood

pattern of parenting in which a father after a divorce reduces contact with his own children serves as a father to the children of the woman he marries or lives with, then ignores these children too after moving in or marrying another women.

factor most related to violence against women

sexist structure of society and to socialization

in what family setting is incest most likely to occur?

families that are socially isolated


the study of the size composition growth and distribution of human populations

Malthus theorem

observation by Thomas Malthus the food supply increases arithmetically (123) populations grows geometrically (24826)

exponential growth curve

a pattern of growth in which numbers double during approximately equal intervals, showing a steep acceleration in later stages.

Demographic transition

a 3 stage historical process of population growth;
1. high BR high DR
2. high BR low DR
3. low BR low DR
4. deaths out number births has made its appearnace in the most industrialized nations

demographic free fall

as more nations enter stage four of the demographic transition the worlds population will peak at about 8-9 billion and then begin to grow smaller

population shrinkage

process by which a country's pop becomes smaller because its birth rate and immigration are too low to replace those who die and emigrate.

why do women in poor nations bear a large number of children

motherhood is the most priced status a women can achieve
community supports this view
children are economic assets

variables most often included in a popular pyramid

age and sex

fertility rate

# of children an average women bears


# of children that women are capable of bearing

crude birth rate

annual number of live births per 1000 population

3 variables used to determine countrys growth rate

fertility morality and net migration

primary factor affecting growth rate in most countries


key factor in the development of cities

development of more efficient agriculture

zero population growth

women bearing only enough children to reproduce the population


the efficient moving of people resources and information


an urban area consisting of at least two metropolisies and their suburbs


a central city surrounded by smaller cities and their suburbs


middle class people moving into a rundown area of a city displacing the poor as they buy and restore homes

edge city

a large clustering of service facilities and residential areas near highway intersections that provides a sense of place to people who live shop and work there

invasion succession cycle

the process of one group of people displacing a group whose racial ethnic or social class characteristics differ form their own


a city of 10,000 to 50,000 residents that is not a suburb

concentric zone theory

a city expands outward from its center

multiple nuclei theory

some cities have several centers: clustering of fast food restaurants in one area and automobile dealers in another

sector theory

a cities concentric zones do not form a complete circle

gans typology of city dwellers

gans found a community, people who identified with the are and one another. its residents enjoyed networks of friends and acquaintances. despite the areas substandard buildings, most West Enders had chosen to live here

norm of non involvement

avoiding intrusions from strangers. People going about their everyday lives in the city

diffusion of responsibility

the more bystanders there are the less likely people are to help

establishing an enterprise zone

the use of economic incentives in a designated area to encourage investment


a decision by the officers of a financial institution not to make loans in a particular area

collective behavior

extraordinary activities carried out by groups of people; includes lynching's, rumors, panics, urban legends, fads, and fashions

circular reaction

back and forth communication among the members of a crowd whereby a collective impulse is transmitted

stages in Blumer's model of the acting crowd

a background of tension or unrest, exciting event, milling, a common object of attention, common impulses

Yamaguchi and Horowitz findings about crowds

beneath the chaotic surface, crowds are actually quite rational; crowd participants take deliberate steps to reach some goal

what did Clark McPhail conclude about crowds?

they are cooperative

minimax strategy

the efforts people make to minimize their costs and maximize their rewards

how did turner and killian predict people would react in a collective behavior situation that involves something unusual?

to deal with a new situation, new norms may emerge. people may even develop novel definitions of right and wrong, feeling that the new circumstances justify actions that they otherwise would consider wrong

turner and killian's typology of people who participate in collective behavior

they are ego-involved concerned insecure curious spectators or exploiters

social contagion

emotional contagion is the tendency to catch and feel emotions that are similar to and influenced by those of others

the most common background condition of urban riots

frustration and anger brought on by feelings of deprivation

precipitating event that starts a riot

the match that lights the fuel, important part, what starts the riot

role extension

the incorporation of addition activities into a role

moral panic

a fear that grips a large number of people over the possibility that some evil threatens the well-being of society

flash mob

a large group of people who assemble suddenly in a public place


a temporary pattern of behavior that catches people's attention


a pattern of behavior that catches peoples attention and last longer than a fad

social movement

a large group of people who are organized to promote or resist some social change

proactive social movement

a social movement that promotes some social change

reactive social movement

a social movement that resists some social change

alternative social movement

a social movement that seeks to alter only some specific aspects of people and institutions

redemptive social movement

a social movement that seeks to change people and institutions totally, to redeem them

reformative social movement

a social movement that seeks to reform some specific aspects of society

trans formative social movement

a social movement that seeks to change society totally, transform it

plain folks strategy

associating the product, candidate, or policy with "just plain folks"

mass society theory

an explanation for why people participate in a social movement based on the assumption that the movement offers them a sense of belonging

deprivation theory

the idea that people join social movement based on what they think they should have compared with what others have

stages of a social movement

initial unrest and agitation, resource mobilization, organization institutionalize decline and death

in the u.s. what is the choice of marriage more dependent on?

age, education, class, race and religion


a young profession person who is less than forty and makes more than $100,000 focuses on their own pleasure

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