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84 terms

Sociology Unit 4

STUDY
PLAY
family
two or more people who consider themselves related by blood marriage or adoption
household
people who occupy the same housing unit
nuclear family
a family consisting of a husband wife and child(ren)
polygyny
a form of marriage in which men have more that one wife
polyandry
a form of marriage in which women have more than one husband
family of orientation
the family in which a person grows up
family of procreation
the family formed when a couples first child is born
matriarchal
system of reckoning decent that only counts the mothers side
patriarchal
system of reckoning decent that only counts the fathers side
bilineal
system of reckoning decent that counts both mom and dads side
endogamy
practice of marrying within ones group
exogamy
practice of marrying outside ones group
dinks
dual income no kids
boomerang children
kids who strike out on their own but then find the cost or responsibility too great and return home, often several times
fictive kin
people who have helped out in the hard times who people owe obligations to as if they were blood relatives or men who are not the biological fathers of their children are given fatherhood status
skipped generation family
grandparents rear their grandchildren parents are incapable of caring for their children
main difference between cohabitation and marriage
adults that live together in a sexual relationship with out being married
sandwich generation
people who find themselves sandwiched together between and responsible for two other generations, children and aging parents
role confusion
incest taboo: father screws daughter: look at him as dad or lover, look at mom as mother, rival, or first wife
gender division of labor
husband takes primary responsibility for earning the income and wives primary responsibility for taking care of the house and children
greatest influence on marital homogamy
marry people who have similar characteristics to each other
kohns discovery about how parents socialize their children
the norms of their work environment
serial fatherhood
pattern of parenting in which a father after a divorce reduces contact with his own children serves as a father to the children of the woman he marries or lives with, then ignores these children too after moving in or marrying another women.
factor most related to violence against women
sexist structure of society and to socialization
in what family setting is incest most likely to occur?
families that are socially isolated
demography
the study of the size composition growth and distribution of human populations
Malthus theorem
observation by Thomas Malthus the food supply increases arithmetically (123) populations grows geometrically (24826)
exponential growth curve
a pattern of growth in which numbers double during approximately equal intervals, showing a steep acceleration in later stages.
Demographic transition
a 3 stage historical process of population growth;
1. high BR high DR
2. high BR low DR
3. low BR low DR
4. deaths out number births has made its appearnace in the most industrialized nations
demographic free fall
as more nations enter stage four of the demographic transition the worlds population will peak at about 8-9 billion and then begin to grow smaller
population shrinkage
process by which a country's pop becomes smaller because its birth rate and immigration are too low to replace those who die and emigrate.
why do women in poor nations bear a large number of children
motherhood is the most priced status a women can achieve
community supports this view
children are economic assets
variables most often included in a popular pyramid
age and sex
fertility rate
# of children an average women bears
fecundity
# of children that women are capable of bearing
crude birth rate
annual number of live births per 1000 population
3 variables used to determine countrys growth rate
fertility morality and net migration
primary factor affecting growth rate in most countries
industrialization
key factor in the development of cities
development of more efficient agriculture
zero population growth
women bearing only enough children to reproduce the population
infrastructure
the efficient moving of people resources and information
megalopolis
an urban area consisting of at least two metropolisies and their suburbs
metropolis
a central city surrounded by smaller cities and their suburbs
gentrification
middle class people moving into a rundown area of a city displacing the poor as they buy and restore homes
edge city
a large clustering of service facilities and residential areas near highway intersections that provides a sense of place to people who live shop and work there
invasion succession cycle
the process of one group of people displacing a group whose racial ethnic or social class characteristics differ form their own
micropolis
a city of 10,000 to 50,000 residents that is not a suburb
concentric zone theory
a city expands outward from its center
multiple nuclei theory
some cities have several centers: clustering of fast food restaurants in one area and automobile dealers in another
sector theory
a cities concentric zones do not form a complete circle
gans typology of city dwellers
gans found a community, people who identified with the are and one another. its residents enjoyed networks of friends and acquaintances. despite the areas substandard buildings, most West Enders had chosen to live here
norm of non involvement
avoiding intrusions from strangers. People going about their everyday lives in the city
diffusion of responsibility
the more bystanders there are the less likely people are to help
establishing an enterprise zone
the use of economic incentives in a designated area to encourage investment
redlining
a decision by the officers of a financial institution not to make loans in a particular area
collective behavior
extraordinary activities carried out by groups of people; includes lynching's, rumors, panics, urban legends, fads, and fashions
circular reaction
back and forth communication among the members of a crowd whereby a collective impulse is transmitted
stages in Blumer's model of the acting crowd
a background of tension or unrest, exciting event, milling, a common object of attention, common impulses
Yamaguchi and Horowitz findings about crowds
beneath the chaotic surface, crowds are actually quite rational; crowd participants take deliberate steps to reach some goal
what did Clark McPhail conclude about crowds?
they are cooperative
minimax strategy
the efforts people make to minimize their costs and maximize their rewards
how did turner and killian predict people would react in a collective behavior situation that involves something unusual?
to deal with a new situation, new norms may emerge. people may even develop novel definitions of right and wrong, feeling that the new circumstances justify actions that they otherwise would consider wrong
turner and killian's typology of people who participate in collective behavior
they are ego-involved concerned insecure curious spectators or exploiters
social contagion
emotional contagion is the tendency to catch and feel emotions that are similar to and influenced by those of others
the most common background condition of urban riots
frustration and anger brought on by feelings of deprivation
precipitating event that starts a riot
the match that lights the fuel, important part, what starts the riot
role extension
the incorporation of addition activities into a role
moral panic
a fear that grips a large number of people over the possibility that some evil threatens the well-being of society
flash mob
a large group of people who assemble suddenly in a public place
fad
a temporary pattern of behavior that catches people's attention
fashion
a pattern of behavior that catches peoples attention and last longer than a fad
social movement
a large group of people who are organized to promote or resist some social change
proactive social movement
a social movement that promotes some social change
reactive social movement
a social movement that resists some social change
alternative social movement
a social movement that seeks to alter only some specific aspects of people and institutions
redemptive social movement
a social movement that seeks to change people and institutions totally, to redeem them
reformative social movement
a social movement that seeks to reform some specific aspects of society
trans formative social movement
a social movement that seeks to change society totally, transform it
plain folks strategy
associating the product, candidate, or policy with "just plain folks"
mass society theory
an explanation for why people participate in a social movement based on the assumption that the movement offers them a sense of belonging
deprivation theory
the idea that people join social movement based on what they think they should have compared with what others have
stages of a social movement
initial unrest and agitation, resource mobilization, organization institutionalize decline and death
in the u.s. what is the choice of marriage more dependent on?
age, education, class, race and religion
yuppie
a young profession person who is less than forty and makes more than $100,000 focuses on their own pleasure