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The ability of a cell or organism to regulate its internal conditions despite changes to the environment.


1. a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance 2. Less than 7 indicates an acid 3. More than 7 indicates a base


1. Compound that tastes sour 2. turns litmus paper red 3. reacts with metals to produce hydrogen gas


1. a compound that tastes bitter 2. feels slippery 3. turns litmus paper blue
4. does not reaction to metal


the set of chemical reactions through which an organism carries out its life processes


The movement of particles from an area where their concentration is higher to an area where their concentration is lower


Diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane.

Facilitated Diffusion

the process in which protein channels embedded in the cell membrane allow specific molecules to cross the membrane

Concentration gradient

Difference in concentration that make diffusion possible


Having a greater concentration of solute than another solution


Having a lower concentration of solute than another solution


a condition in which the concentration of a solute is the same inside and outside a cell


having the same concentration of solute as another solution

Passive Transport

The movement of materials into or out of the cell WITHOUT the expenditure of energy

Active Transport

The movement of molecules against a concentration gradient WITH the expenditure of energy

Chemical Reaction

a process through which substances (reactants) change into new substances (products) with different physical and chemical properties.


substance that enters into a chemical reaction


substance yielded during a chemical reaction

Exothermic Reaction

a chemical reaction that releases energy

Endothermic Reaction

a chemical reaction that absorbs energy

Activation Energy

the energy required for a chemical reaction to proceed

Maintaining homeostasis depends on regulating such conditions as what?

pH and temperature

True or False. Changes in temperature cause changed to the metabolic rate.


Name two organisms that can not regulate their body temperature?

Snakes and Lizards

What is an important in the regulation of the body temperature?


What is perhaps the most important substance that passes through the cell's membrane?


Protein channels in red blood cells allow only what to pass through the cell?


Like facilitated transport, ____________ transport can use protein channels to move specific substances across the membrane.


A chemical reaction can be described as what?

a chemical equation

This chemical reaction is read as
CH₄(g) + 2O₂(g)-->CO₂(g) + 2H₂O(l)

CH₄= Mehane gas O₂= Oxygen
H₂O= Water CO₂+ Carbon Dioxide

One molecule of Methane reacts with two molecules of Oxygen to produce one molecule of carbon dioxide and two molecules of water.

Passive transport vs Active transport

1. Active transport makes use of energy in the form of ATP whereas passive transport does not utilize any 2. Active transport involves the transfer of molecules or ions against a concentration gradient whereas passive transport is the transfer along a concentration gradient.

The four main kinds of passive transport

1. diffusion 2. facilitated diffusion, 3. filtration 4. osmosis.

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