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32 terms

Lesson 09: the Cell: Homeostasis and Transport and Lesson 10: The Cell: Energy Use and Release

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Homeostasis
The ability of a cell or organism to regulate its internal conditions despite changes to the environment.
pH
1. a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a substance 2. Less than 7 indicates an acid 3. More than 7 indicates a base
Acid
1. Compound that tastes sour 2. turns litmus paper red 3. reacts with metals to produce hydrogen gas
Base
1. a compound that tastes bitter 2. feels slippery 3. turns litmus paper blue
4. does not reaction to metal
Metabolism
the set of chemical reactions through which an organism carries out its life processes
Diffusion
The movement of particles from an area where their concentration is higher to an area where their concentration is lower
Osmosis
Diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane.
Facilitated Diffusion
the process in which protein channels embedded in the cell membrane allow specific molecules to cross the membrane
Concentration gradient
Difference in concentration that make diffusion possible
Hypertonic
Having a greater concentration of solute than another solution
Hypotonic
Having a lower concentration of solute than another solution
Equilibrium
a condition in which the concentration of a solute is the same inside and outside a cell
Isotonic
having the same concentration of solute as another solution
Passive Transport
The movement of materials into or out of the cell WITHOUT the expenditure of energy
Active Transport
The movement of molecules against a concentration gradient WITH the expenditure of energy
Chemical Reaction
a process through which substances (reactants) change into new substances (products) with different physical and chemical properties.
Reactant
substance that enters into a chemical reaction
Product
substance yielded during a chemical reaction
Exothermic Reaction
a chemical reaction that releases energy
Endothermic Reaction
a chemical reaction that absorbs energy
Activation Energy
the energy required for a chemical reaction to proceed
Maintaining homeostasis depends on regulating such conditions as what?
pH and temperature
True or False. Changes in temperature cause changed to the metabolic rate.
True
Name two organisms that can not regulate their body temperature?
Snakes and Lizards
What is an important in the regulation of the body temperature?
Water
What is perhaps the most important substance that passes through the cell's membrane?
Water
Protein channels in red blood cells allow only what to pass through the cell?
Glucose
Like facilitated transport, ____________ transport can use protein channels to move specific substances across the membrane.
active
A chemical reaction can be described as what?
a chemical equation
This chemical reaction is read as
CH₄(g) + 2O₂(g)-->CO₂(g) + 2H₂O(l)

CH₄= Mehane gas O₂= Oxygen
H₂O= Water CO₂+ Carbon Dioxide
One molecule of Methane reacts with two molecules of Oxygen to produce one molecule of carbon dioxide and two molecules of water.
Passive transport vs Active transport
1. Active transport makes use of energy in the form of ATP whereas passive transport does not utilize any 2. Active transport involves the transfer of molecules or ions against a concentration gradient whereas passive transport is the transfer along a concentration gradient.
The four main kinds of passive transport
1. diffusion 2. facilitated diffusion, 3. filtration 4. osmosis.