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Brier Article Early Parental Loss and Development of Adult Psychopathology
Terms in this set (11)
1) Looked at what connection?
2) specifically looked at what?
3) Hypothesis: looked at link between what?
4) in the DSM what are the two highest rated stressors?
1)Looked at mind body connection and neuroendocrine system
2) Specifically looked at early loss/ early trauma and the effects that it may hold
Link between early stress and loss in childhood & development of psychopathology in later adulthood
4) *DSM (Axis 4) rates the death of a parents as one of the highest level of severity in stress for children (only natural disaster tops it)
1) loss of parent: % break down of group
3) age of loss?
1) death (64%)
divorce (36%), divorce that was so intense that child had no contact at all with
2) (N = 90):
3) 2 - 17 (range)
This range too broad because a 2 year old and 17 year old processes loss differently
1) Study Design?
3) issue with design?
1) Correlational - using self-report data (not cause/effect_
2) Respondents were diagnosed with the presence or absence an affective disorder (K = .92)
3) Correlational design does NOT tell us about "cause & effect"
1) Home environment: looked at what 2 things following loss?
1) level of satisfaction with surviving parent
and history of psychiatric illness in family
1) two hormones measured?
2) stress hormones were measured in what two cases?
3) in dysregulated individual you see what?
4) HPA axis in depressed individuals? similar reaction seen in what response?
1) cortisol & B-endorphin
2) stress hormone - measured at rest & following injection of dexamethasone (when given it stops the stress response)
3) In a dysregulated individual you will see a failure of suppression of stress response
4) People who are chronically depressed have a dysregulated HPA axis such that it turns on but doesn't turn off (similar reaction is seen in trauma)
1) what alone is not a good predictor of adult psychopathology?
2) what two things are better indicator? what can serve as a buffer?
3) Problems can extend to developing what disorder and well as what 3 other things?
1) Early parental loss alone is not a good predictor
2) Early parental loss followed by a non-supportive home environment is a better indicator
Having a supportive parent can serve as buffer to the stress you experience from a loss
3) Problems can extend not only into developing an affective (mood) disorder (depression, anxiety) but also school refusal, sleep difficulties, other behavioral disturbances
1) Group diagnosed with affective disorder were more on what?
2) what does having a dysregulated axis mean? gets regulated how?
1) Group diagnosed with affective disorder were more on "alert" (supported by later studies on HPA axis)
2) Dysregulated HPA axis, once they get triggered they stay triggered
Goal is use exposure therapy to regulate axis
1) instruments used?
2) causality? early loss or prior effects?
3) issue of retrospective data?
4) neuroendocrine findings elevated why?
1) Authors used instrumental without validity/reliability - limited usefulness??
2) Cannot support a cause and effect hypothesis
does early loss lead to problems later OR can pre-existing problems with (or prior to) the loss result in problems - cannot answer
3) Based on anecdotal/self-report data
retrospective data has problems of accuracy
(4) Neuroendocrine findings
are the elevated levels the result of the loss or are they the symptoms of the psychopathology diagnosed? - cannot answer,
5) extent of non-supportive relationship?
6) neuroendocrine elevation due to what?
7) Developmental stages: adjustment in divorce
a) young and divorced?
b) old and divorced?
5) What extent does the non-supportive relationship before the loss play a role? - cannot answer
(6) Does the neuroendocrine elevation relate to the negative interaction with the non-
supportive environment or is it a part of the loss or the psychopathology? - cannot
(7) Developmental stage & gender??
a) Younger doesn't always mean more problems
Children who are young and had divorced parents, had poorer initial adjustment but better long term outcomes
b) Older children who see divoce, had better initial adjustment (due to being older and having to act a certain way) but poorer long term outcomes
1) stat v clincial sign
2) implication for increasing support of?
3) what may be the more effective method in treating children's needs?
1) statistical significance vs. clinical significance in research
Clinical sign if based on how effective it is for the patient
2) implication for increasing support following the death of a parent (including therapy)
3)supporting the surviving parent to be more effective in meeting child's needs
What is the Endopsychic situation?
When a kid doesn't know what a situation happens they come up with reasons that typically involve self blame (ie my parents divorced because I didn't clean my room).
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