Electrolyte Functions & Effects of Abnormalities

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Describe effects of sodium abnormalities.
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**Adequate magnesium is necessary to promote potassium absorption in the kidneys. Therefore, low magnesium may result in low potassium.

**Elevated magnesium levels will stabilize cell membranes, making depolarization less likely. This will manifest as decreased or absent deep tendon reflexes.

**Conversely, low magnesium levels will present as hyperactive reflexes and muscle spasms
What are risks associated with hypercalcemia?**Initially causes increased heart rate and blood pressure but prolonged hypercalcemia will cause cardiac arrest **Long term hypercalcemia causes increased risk of kidney stones. **Risk of blood clotsDescribe the significance of phosphate levels.Phosphate is inversely related to calcium in the body. Therefore, hyperphosphatemia would present the same as hypocalcemia. Phosphate is required to synthesize ATP (energy!). This is especially important for respiratory muscle function.