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The process by which rocks are broken down by the forces of nature.

Physical, Chemical

Two types of weathering: _________ and _________ weathering

Physical Weathering

The breakdown of rocks by physical forces of wear and tear, such as ice, rapid changes in temperature, and grit carried by wind and running water.


(True/False) Physical Weathering changes the chemical composition of rocks.

Ice Wedging

Type of weathering that occurs when rainwater soaks into the cracks in a rock, and freezes, splitting the rock.


A type of weathering associated with granite that involves the breaking or peeling away of rock layers.

Mechanical stress

Exfoliation is caused by ___________ ________.

Chemical Weathering

The chemical reaction of minerals in rock with air or water which changes the chemical composition of the original rock, causing the rock to dissolve or crumble.


Pure water has a pH of _____.


Water in nature has a pH of _____.


(True/False) Chemicval Weathering changes the composition of the original minerals.

Porous vs. Non-porous, fine-grained vs. course grained, acidity of the water, temperature, humidity

The rate of chemical weathering is affected by things like... (5)


The carrying away of rock fragments such as by wind or runnning water.


(True/False) Rain can cause erosion.


Excess water that pools up on the ground during a rainstorn and flows downhill.


The stripping away of topsoil by a runoff.


Planting ______ on slopes of a hill can dramatically reduce sheetwash.


Running water which carves a channel, or gully, in the ground that cannot be repaired by ordinary cultivation.

Water Table

The level of standing ground water beneath the earth's surface.


A large stream that carries water from the mountains to the sea.


The sediments carried by a stream.


(True/False) The lower the gradient, the larger the sediments carried.

Drainage Basin

A region of land drained by a stream or river system.


Drainage basins are determined by ________.


A high ridge separating two adjoining drainage basins.


The largest drainage basin of the U.S. is drained by the _________ River system.

Great Divide

The western boundary of the Mississippi basin is the _________________.


The Great Divide is of the _________ Mountains.

Appalachian Divide

The eastern boundary of the Mississippi basin is the ___________________.

Eastern Continental Divide

Another name for the Appalachian Divide


Streams that feed into a river at various points along its course.

Flood Plain

The level or nearly the level of land that borders a river and is covered by river water during the flood season.


A natural ridge that may be formed along the edge of the river's channel.


Winding, looping curves in a river on a flat, flood plain.

Oxbow Lake

A type of lake formed when a sharp curve in a river is cut off the rest of the river.


A fan-shaped deposit of sediments at the mouth of a river.

Alluvial Fan

A fan-shaped deposit of sediment at the mouth of a dry stream bed in the desert.


The type of rock most commonly associated with caverns is _________.


In _________, there is a cave system that runs 348 miles in length.

Sarawak Chamber

In Borneo, there is a large cavern known as the ___________ _______.


A buildup of dripstone which forms a hanging icicle-like mass of calcium carbonate.


A spire-like mass of dripstone on the floor of a cave.

Sink hole

A large, funnel-shaped depression in the ground caused when the roof of a cavern collapses.


Gently sloping coasts covered by sand or pebbles


Ridge of sand or gravel offshore from the beach.

Barrier Island

Large offshore bars


The body of water lying between a barrier island and the coast.


Headlands that project out into the sea along deep-water shorelines.

Sea Arches

Narrow formations of rock that arch out into the water from the coast.

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