Management by Objectives

Chapter 12 Step 2: Planning and Programming
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As executives have become sophisticated int he ways of PR,
they have become more demanding.
Most organizations operate on the basis of management by
objectives (MBO) or, as others term it, management by objectives and results (MOR).
MBO systematically applies effective management techniques
to running an organizations: it specifies the outcomes (consequences, results, impact to be achieved, thereby establishing the criteria for selecting strategies, monitoring performance and progress, and evaluating program effectiveness.
As now applied, MBO operates at two levels of outcomes:
1. Goals: are summative statements that spell out the overall outcomes of a program. Such a program may involve many different parts of an organization as well as many different strategies. They state what the coordinated effort is intended to accomplish and by when it will be accomplished. they establish what will be accomplished if the objectives set for each of the publics are achieved.
As now applied, MBO operates at two levels of outcomes:
2. Objectives: represent the specific knowledge, opinion, and behavioral outcome to be achieved for each well-defined target public, what some call "key results." The outcome criteria take the form of measurable program effects to be achieved by specified dates.
In practice, Objectives do the following:
1. Give focus and direction for developing program strategies and tactics.
2. Provide guidance and motivation to those implementing the program.
3. Spell out the criteria for monitoring progress and for assessing impact.
An organization's overall goals provide
the outcome criteria for unit and individual goals, including those for the public relations department.
Just as an organization has a written MBO plan,
so should public relations have a long-range MBO plan on paper.
A separate document should give guidance
within the department
Just as managers or general officers are periodically subject to performance review by a superior officer,
so is the public relations manager.
If line departments and staff functions hold annual conferences
to re-energize the staff, so should PR.
Most important, PR must operate within as part of
an organization's overall MBO plan, must be held accountable in the same way as other functions, and must show how public relations contributes to the achievement of the organization's mission and goals.