39 terms

Poetry Terms

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poetry
writing that is rhythmic and compressed. It uses figures of speech and imagery designed to appeal to our emotions and imagination.
prose
all forms of ordinary writing and speech that has no rhythmic patterns found in poetry
alliteration
repetition of consonant sounds
assonance
repetition without rhyme of vowel sounds in stressed syllables (whereas alliteration is the repetition of consonant sounds) Example|open and broken.
blank verse
poetry that has meter (rhythm) but doesn't rhyme. It is poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Blank verse is not the same as free verse. Shakespeare's plays were written in blank verse.
free verse
poetry that has NO regular meter (rhythm) or rhyme scheme.
iambic pentameter
A poetic line of five iambic feet. An iambic foot consists of an unaccented syllable followed by an accented syllable. Iambic pentameter is the meter of blank verse and sonnets.
onomatopoeia
the use of words whose sounds imitate or suggest their meaning (Example|boom, crash, pop)
meter
a pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables. Refers to the musical rhythm of the poem.
refrain
a line that is repeated in a poem for musical and mood effect.
end rhyme
repetition of an accented vowel sounds at the end of a line that matches with the end of another line.
rhyme scheme
the pattern that shows which lines rhyme with another. Usually end rhymes are used to find the pattern. (Example|a sonnet rhymes ababcdcdefefg)
rhythm
a musical quality produced by the repetition of stressed and unstressed syllables or by the repetition of certain other sound patterns.
couplet
two consecutive lines in a poem that goes together in meaning, rhyme scheme,
quatrain
four lines in a poem that work together in meaning or rhyme scheme.
stanza
a group of consecutive lines in a poem that forms a single unit ( like what a paragraph is in prose)
ballad
a song or poem that tells a story about some kind of fatal relationship or crisis. Ballads are written in four-line stanzas (quatrain) that have a rhyme scheme.
concrete poem
poetry in which the visual arrangement of words or letter suggests something about the subject of the poem.
elegy
a sad, sorrowful poem for a dead person. The mood is often solemn and sad.
epic poem
a very long narrative poem, often about a hero's adventure
haiku
a lyric poem, originating in Japan, that captures the essence of a moment in a simple image. It is three lines of five, seven, and five syllables, respectively.
lyric poem
a poem expressing a feeling or thought of a speaker, rather than telling a story.
narrative poem
a poem that tells a story. It has a plot, characters, setting, conflict, etc.
ode
A long and elaborate lyric poem, usually dignified or exalted in tone and often written to praise someone or something or to mark an important occasion.
sonnet
a fourteen line lyric poem that has a set rhyme scheme and rhythm. A Shakespearean sonnet rhymes ababcdcdefefgg (three quatrains of alternating rhyme and a concluding couplet). Sonnets often start with the first eight lines (octet) developing a statement of a problem, while the last six lines (sestet) lead to the resolution of the problem. A resolution is finalized in the concluding couplet.
figurative language
language that has meaning beyond the literal (surface) meaning
hyperbole
obvious, extravagant exaggeration or overstatement, not intended to be taken literally, but used figuratively to create humor or emphasis
imagery
language that appeals to the senses ( sight, sound, smell, taste, touch)
metaphor
a comparison of two unlike things in which one thing becomes another.
oxymoron
a figure of speech in which two contradictory words or phrases are combined in a single expression. Example|wise fool or cruel kindness.
personification
a figure of speech in which an object or animal is spoken of as if it had human feelings, thoughts, and attitudes.
pun
a clever play on words in which a word has two or more meanings.
simile
a comparison of two unlike things, using words such as like, as, than, or resembles.
symbolism
a person, place thing, or event that has meaning in itself and stands for something completely different.
allusion
a reference to someone or something from literature, history, religion, mythology, politics, sports, or another field that many are familiar with.
apostrophe
a device used in poetry of calling out to an imaginary, dead, or absent person, or to a place, thing, or personified abstraction either to begin a poem or to make a dramatic break in thought somewhere within the poem.
irony
a contrast between what is expected and reality
mood
a feeling or emotion that a piece of writing sends to the reader through images, word choice, etc.
tone
the attitude a writer takes toward his or her subject, character, audience.
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