64 terms

IB English Literary Terms

IB English Literary Terms for Paper 1 and Paper 2
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Terms in this set (...)

Allegory
a poem, play, picture, etc, in which the apparent meaning of the characters and events is used to symbolize a deeper moral or spiritual meaning i.e. extended metaphors and series of symbols
Alliteration
repetition of the initial sounds of consonants - gives reinforcement to stresses and serves as a subtle connection to key words
Allusion
implied or indirect reference to a person, event, or thing or to a part of another text. It can suggest ideas by connotation
Ambiguity
a single expression or word that is understandable in more than one way - can be intended to unify the different interpretations to expand the enrichment of the meaning of the original expression
Analogy
a similarity between like features of two things, on which a comparison may be based
Anaphora
repetition of the same word or expression at the beginning of successive phrases to create emphasis
Antithesis
A figure of speech in which a thought is balanced with a contrasting thought
Archaism
intentional use of a word or expression no longer in general use to evoke a sense of a bygone era
Assonance
relatively close juxtaposition of the same or similar vowel sounds but with different end consonants - vowel rhyme i.e. date and fade
Blank Verse
Poetry written without rhymes but retains a set metrical pattern i.e. Iambic Pentameter. Very flexible in form - syntactic structure not constrained by rhyme scheme
Caesura
Rhythmic break or pause in the flow of sound which is commonly introduced in the middle of a line of verse. Grammatical, rhythmic and dramatic device and to avoid monotony
Climax
Rhetorically, a series of words, phrases or sentences arranged in a continuously ascending order of intensity
Connotation
suggestion of a meaning by a word beyond what it explicitly denotes
Couplet
two successive lines of poetry, usually of equal length and rhythmic correspondence, with end-words that rhyme
Denotation
the literal dictionary meaning of a word - opposite of connotation
Diction
the choice of words phrases, sentence structures and figurative language in a literary work - i.e. colloquail, formal, literal, figurative, concrete or abstact
Ballad
a narrative poem, often of folk origin and intended to be sung, consisting of simple stanzas and usually having a refrain
Dramatic Monologue
A one-way conversation between a character and a second person or an audience
Elegy
A poem of lament, praise and consolation usually formal and sustained
Ellipsis
the omission of a word or words necessary to complete a grammatical construction (....) or (--) - often used for dramatic effect, tension, confusion etc.
Empathy
the feeling of awareness, understanding and sensitivity when hearing or reading of an event without an actual experience
Enjambment
the continuation of meaning, without pause or break, from one line of poetry to the next
Epitaph
A brief poem or statement in memory of someone who is deceased
Euphemism
a mild, indirect, or vague term substituting for a harsh, blunt, or offensive term
Extended Metaphor
A metaphor drawn out beyond the usual word or phrase to extend throughout a stanza or an entire poem by making multiple comparisons between the unlike objects or ideas
Figurative Language
the use of words, phrases, symbols and ideas to evoke mental images and sesne impressions
Foot
A unit of rhythm or meter; the division in verse of a group of syllables i.e. "The boy | stood on | the burn | ing deck" - 4 iambic metrical feet
Free Verse
A fluid form which conforms to no set rules of traditional versification - freedom from fixed patterns of meter and rhyme. Liberation from metrical regularity to allow the poet to select line breaks appropriate for the intended sense of the text. Provides greater potential for visual arrangement
Half Rhyme
Rhyme only occurs on the first syllable of the rhyming word i.e. blue and truly, sum and trumpet
Hamartia
The tragic hero's fatal flaw - combined with chance and eexternal forces it results in catastrophe. I.e. pride, overconfidence, jealousy. Rather than villainy, it is a significant factor that leads to this suffering - evokes pity and fear for we may recognize that we could have similar errors
Hyperbole
Exaggeration or overstatement
Iamb
Most common metrical 'foot' in English - consists of 2 syllables, one short one long
Imagery
elements in a literary work used to evoke mental images with sensation and emotion
Internal rhyme
A rhyme occurring within a line
Ionic
In classical poetry, a metrical foot of 4 syllables, 2 long 2 short
Irony
A figure of speech in the form on an expression in which the use of words is the opposite of the thought in the speaker's mind thus contradicting the literal definition
Dramatic Irony
when the audience knows more than the character does
Lyric verse
In poems when the speaker's ardent expression of a emotional element predominates
Metaphor
A figure of speech in which a word or phrase literally denoting one object or idea is applied to another
Meter
A measure of rhythmic quantity - organized succession of syllables at basically regular intervals in a line of poetry according to the definite metrical patterns
1 - monometer, 2 - dimeter, 3 - trimeter, 4 - tetrameter, 5 - pentameter
Motif
A thematic element recurring frequently in literature
Narrative
A story stressing details of plot, incident and action
Ode
A type of lyric or melic verse usually irregular
Onomatopoeia
Words that imitate sounds
Oxymoron
conjunction of words which seem to be contradictory but expresses a truth or dramatic effect i.e. cool fire, deafening silence
Pastoral Poetry
Idealizing the lives of shepherds and country folk
Pathetic Fallacy
Ascribing human traits or feelings to weather
Personification
Human traits are attributed to an animal or object
Prose
Line is not treated as a formal unit, nor does it employ the repetitive patterns of rhythm or meter
Realism
Portray an accurate portrayal of nature and real life without idealization
Rhetorical Question
A question solely for effect with no answer expected
Rhythm
The regular or progressive pattern of recurrent accents in the flow of a poem
Satire
exposes and ridicules human vices or folly
Didactic
Poetry that criticizes injustice or social wrongs
Simile
Comparison between two unlike things using 'as' and 'like'
Soliloquy
Talking to oneself - illusion of unspoken reflections
Sonnet
A fixed form consisting of 14 lines with Iambic Pentameter (5)
Style
A poet's individual creative process determined by choices with diction, figurative language, rhetorical devices, sounds and rhythmic patterns
Symbol
image is used to represent something else
Theme
Central idea, topic or didactic for quality of work
Tone
The poet's or persona's attitude in style or expression towards a subject e.g. loving, ironic, bitter, pitying, fanciful
Quatrain
4 lines per Stanza
Cacophony
Words that give an impression of harshness and brutality through the sound of the letters
Euphony
Words that give an impression of quiet and softness through the sound of the letters