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AP Euro Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment
Terms in this set (70)
the era of scientific thought in europe between the 16th and 18th centuries during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543), heliocentric theory
Influenced by Copernicus; Built observatory and collected data on the locations of stars and planets for over 20 years; His limited knowledge of mathematics prevented him from making much sense out of the data.
Assistant to Brahe; used Brahe's data to prove that the earth moved in an elliptical, not circular, orbit; Wrote 3 laws of planetary motion based on mechanical relationships and accurately predicted movements of planets in a sun-centered universe; Demolished old systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy
3 Laws of Planetary Motion
1.) Orbits eliptical 2.) Planets don't move at a uniform speed 3.) The time it takes to orbit the sun is proportional to the distance form the sun; written by Kepler
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars; demonstrated that different weights descend at the same rate; perfected the refracting telescope that enabled him to make many discoveries (1564-1642)
Laws of Motion
Planets have eliptical orbits; a planets orbit gets faster the closer it is to the sun; there is a mathemetic equation for a planets distance from the sun and the time it takes to orbit; established by Newton
a device built to observe distant objects by making them appear closer
(1561-1626) English politician, writer. Formalized the empirical method. Novum Organum. Inductive reasoning.
medical practice and advice based on observation and experience in ignorance of scientific findings
Francis Bacon's reasoning by experiments, mathematics, and observation
This French mathematical genius said that one should apply logic and try to answer problems with mathematical equations
reasoning in which a conclusion is reached by stating a general principle and then applying that principle to a specific case
Cogito Ergo Sum
"I think, therefore I am," a philosophical statement used by Descartes
The teaching of René Descartes that the mind or spirit constitutes one reality while the body is something completely different, separate and apart from mind.
a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions
English mathematician and scientist who invented differential calculus and formulated the theory of universal gravitation, a theory about the nature of light, and three laws of motion. His treatise on gravitation, presented in Principia Mathematica (1687), was supposedly inspired by the sight of a falling apple.
Principle of Universal Gravitation
states that every object in this universe attracts every other object with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of distance between their centers; Newton
Newton's book which established the law of universal gravitation and banished Ptolemy's laws and universe for good; 1687
a Flemish surgeon who is considered the father of modern anatomy (1514-1564)
Englishman who announced blood circulates throughout the body.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Dutch pioneer microscopist who was among the first to recognize cells in animals and who gave the first accurate descriptions of microbes and spermatozoa and blood corpuscles (1632-1723)
an honorary English society (formalized in 1660 and given a Royal Charter by Charles II in 1662) through which the British government has supported science
Worked with clocks and compasses for longitude and lattitude and created the "Marine Chronometer" which estimated one's exact longitude at sea.
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation
Two Treatises on Civil Government
This book, published by John Locke in 1689, attacks the divine right of kings (using scripture) in the "First Treatise". The "Second Treatise" contains ideas that were somewhat radical at the time, but are essentially what the United States were founded on: all people are created equal, and any government depends on the consent of the governed, who have a right to overthrow and unjust government.
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
[John Locke] (Tabula Rasa) Insisted that all ideas are derived from experience. The initial mind at birth is just a blank slate. Theory of personal identity.
John Locke's concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reasoning, formulate ideas.
Thinkers of the Enlightenment; Wanted to educate the socially elite, but not the masses; were not allowed to openly criticize church or state, so used satire and double-meaning in their writings to avoid being banned; Salons held by wealthy women also kept philosophes safe; They considered themselves part of an intellectual community, and wrote back and forth to each other to share ideas.
French, perhaps greatest Enlightenment thinker. Deist. Mixed glorification and reason with an appeal for better individuals and institutions. Wrote Candide. Believed enlightened despot best form of government.
"Crush the infamous thing (papacy)" - Voltaire
Baron de Montesquieu
French aristocrat who wanted to limit royal absolutism; Wrote The Spirit of Laws, urging that power be separated between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each balancing out the others, thus preventing despotism and preserving freedom. This greatly influenced writers of the US Constitution. He greatly admired British form of government.
Checks and Balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
Jean- Jacques Rousseau
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
the notion that society is based on an agreement between government and the governed in which people agree to give up some rights in exchange for the protection of others, 1762; Jean Jacques Rousseau
According to Rousseau the general will is sacred and absolute, reacting the common interests of the people who have displaced the monarch as the holder of ultimate power.
The idea that primitive human beings are naturally good and that whatever evil they develop is the product of the corrupting action of civilization.
Philosopher who edited a book called the Encyclopedia which was banned by the French king and pope.
Marquis de Beccaria
"An Essay on Crime and Punishment"
- reccomends a system of laws that apply equally to all classes
(1694-1774) French economist. Quesnay was the undisputed leader of the Physiocrats, the first systematic school of economic thought. Among its tenets were the economic and moral righteousness of laissez-faire policies and the notion that land was the ultimate source of all wealth.
This was the group of economists who believed that the wealth of a nation was derived solely from the value of its land
Scottish economist who wrote Wealth of Nations; Laissez-Faire economics
Wealth of Nations
This is the 18th century book written by Scottish economist Adam Smith in which he spells out the first modern account of free market economies.
women played major role-many of brightest minds of Enlightenment assembled to discuss major issues-took part in discussions
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women, Vindication on the Rights of Women
Baron Paul d'Holbach
wrote "System of Nature", which said humans are only machines and have no free will- created a rift between atheist and deist thinkers within the enlightened group
Scottish philosopher whose sceptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses (1711-1776)
Jean de Condorcet
Progress of the Human Mind-utopian ideas also undermined legitimacy of Enlightenment ideas-identified 9 stages of human progress and predicted 10th stage would bring perfection
Professor in East Prussia, argued that if serious thinkers were granted freedom to exercise their reason in print, enlightenment would surely follow. He said that Frederick the Great was an enlightened monarch because he allowed this.
a term given to the philosophy of John Locke and other 17th and 18th century advocates of the protection of individual rights and liberties by limiting government power.
argued need for spiritual conversion and religious experience
the religious beliefs and practices of Methodists characterized by concern with social welfare and public morals
English clergyman and founder of Methodism (1703-1791)
developed by Cornelius Jansen, erroneous belief that man was entirely free in the state of innocence and his will tended to do what was right. According to him, original sin made him a slave to sin and all his actions corrupted him. His only hope was God's grace, which could save him and he taught that God only granted salvifiv grace to a small number of "predestined" people.
philosophes inspired and supported reforms of Enlightened despots-believed absolute rulers should promote good of people-religious toleration, streamlined legal codes, increased access to education, reduction or elimination of torture and death penalty
Frederick the Great
King of Prussia (1740-1786). Successful in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) and the Seven Years; War (1756-1763), he brought Prussia great military prestige in Europe.
War of Austrian Succession
Conflict caused by the rival claims for the dominions of the Habsburg family. Before the death of Charles VI, Holy Roman emperor and archduke of Austria, many of the European powers had guaranteed that Charles's daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him.
a region of central Europe rich in deposits of coal and iron ore
Seven Years' War
Worldwide struggle between France and Great Britain for power and control of land
Diplomatic Revolution of 1756
France and Austria, traditional enemies, now allied against Prussia-Britain, traditional ally of Russia, supported Prussia-bloodiest war since 30 Yrs War
Treaty of Paris
agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent contry, ended the Seven Years War
First Servant of the State
Frederick considered himself this, and many of his reforms were for the improvement of society, but most were intended to increase the power of the state.
Catherine the Great
ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, lierature, Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations
Eugene Pugachev, a Cossack soldier, led a huge serf uprising-demanded end to serfdom, taxes and army service; landlords and officials murdered all over southwestern Russia; eventually captured and executed
Under Catherine the Great, Prussia gained Polish territory through this annexation agreement between Prussia and Austria.
voting in Polish parliament had to be unanimous for changes to be made; thus, little could be done to systematically strengthen the kingdom
This was the queen of Austria as a result of the Pragmatic Sanction. She limited the papacy's political influence in Austria, strengthened her central bureaucracy and cautiously reduced the power that nobles had over their serfs
Pragmatic Sanction of 1713
Established by Charles VI, it was an agreement with the three territories that the Hapsburg's possessions will never divided and must be passed to a single heir.
This was the ruler of the Habsburgs that controlled the Catholic Church closely, granted religious toleration and civic rights to Protestants and Jews, and abolished serfdom
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