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Rivers 101

High-context cultures

Uses covert and implicit messages that rely on nonverbal code systems; group and their traditions are very important, and members of ingroup are easily recognized; time is less structured, and more responsive to people's needs; commitment btw people is very strong and deep

Low-context cultures

Messages are explicit & dependent on verbal codes; group memberships change rapidly and innovation is valued; time is also highly structured, and bonds btw people are fragile; extent of involvement & commitment to long-term relationships is lower

Hofstede's value orientations

Power distance
Uncertainty avoidance
Individualism vs. collectivism
Masculinity-femininity dimension
Long-term vs. short term time orientation
Indulgence vs. Restraint
Monumentalism vs. Restraint
Monumentalism vs. Self-Effacement

Power distance

Can be small or large; concerns that cultures have regarding the issue of human inequality

Uncertainty avoidance

how members of a culture adapt to changes & cope with uncertainties; cultures differ in the extent to which they prefer & can tolerate ambiguity & in the means they select for coping with change; cultures categorized on a continuum of high uncertainty to low uncertainty avoidance

Individualism vs. Collectivism

the degree to which a culture relies on & has allegiance to the self or the group

Masculinity vs. femininity

the degree to which a culture values masculine behaviors, such as assertiveness & the acquisition of wealth, or feminine behaviors, such as caring for others & the quality of life

Long-term vs. short-term time orientation

focuses on events that are long term and events that are short-term

Indulgence vs. Restraint

Juxtaposes hedonism with self discipline

Indulgence cultures

Encourage pleasure, enjoyment, spending, consumption, sexual gratification, & general merriment

Restraint cultures

Encourages control of hedonistic gratifications, and pleasures and enjoyment associated with leisure activities are discouraged

Monumentalism vs. Self-Effacement

Juxtaposes stability with change;

Monumentalism cultures

Like statues, proud, unchangeable, upstanding, stable, and resolute

Self-effacement cultures

Humility, flexibility, adaptation to the situation, & feeling comfortable about life's paradoxes and inconsistencies

2 ways that GLOBE research helps to clarify understanding of cultural patterns

1.) Separates cultural practices from cultural values
2.) Helps to explain the complex nature of cultural patterns

Cultural practices

ways that people typically behave in everyday communication interaction

Cultural values

what people regard as important and believe is ideal


acronym for Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness; 1st 6 based on Hofstede's work, and last 3 are based on Klockholn and Strodtbeck's work (9 total dimensions)

GLOBE categories

1.) Power distance
2.) Uncertainty avoidance
3.) Ingroup collectivism
4.) Institutional collectivism
5.) Gender egalitarianism
6.) Assertiveness
7.) Performance orientation
8.) Future orientation
9.) Humane orientation

Power distance

the degree to which cultures believe that social and political power should be distributed disproportionately, shared unequally, & concentrated among a few top decision makers

Uncertainty avoidance

the extent to which cultures feel threatened by the unpredictability of the future & therefore try to establish more structure in the form of rules, regulations, rituals, and mandatory practices

Ingroup collectivism

degree to which people express pride, loyalty, and solidarity with their family or similar group, & it is similar to what Hofstede calls individualism-collectivism

Institutional collectivism

the degree to which cultures support, value, & prefer to distribute rewards based on group vs. individual interests

Gender egalitarianism

the extent to which a culture minimizes differences in gender expectations for men vs. women

Assertiveness dimension

the extent to which people value & prefer tough aggressiveness or tender nonagressiveness

Performance orientation

the degree to which a culture encourages & rewards people for their accomplishments

High performance oriented

get the job done, get results; value competitiveness, assertiveness, & achievement; low context messages

Low performance oriented

feel controlled by nature & want to live in harmony; high context messages

Future orientation

the extent to which a culture plans for forthcoming events; cultures either prefer to focus on the future or the spontaneity of the present moment

Humane orientation

the extent to which cultures encourage & reward their members for being benevolent & compassionate toward others or focused on self-interest & self-gratifiction

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