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Uses covert and implicit messages that rely on nonverbal code systems; group and their traditions are very important, and members of ingroup are easily recognized; time is less structured, and more responsive to people's needs; commitment btw people is very strong and deep
Messages are explicit & dependent on verbal codes; group memberships change rapidly and innovation is valued; time is also highly structured, and bonds btw people are fragile; extent of involvement & commitment to long-term relationships is lower
Hofstede's value orientations
Individualism vs. collectivism
Long-term vs. short term time orientation
Indulgence vs. Restraint
Monumentalism vs. Restraint
Monumentalism vs. Self-Effacement
Can be small or large; concerns that cultures have regarding the issue of human inequality
how members of a culture adapt to changes & cope with uncertainties; cultures differ in the extent to which they prefer & can tolerate ambiguity & in the means they select for coping with change; cultures categorized on a continuum of high uncertainty to low uncertainty avoidance
Individualism vs. Collectivism
the degree to which a culture relies on & has allegiance to the self or the group
Masculinity vs. femininity
the degree to which a culture values masculine behaviors, such as assertiveness & the acquisition of wealth, or feminine behaviors, such as caring for others & the quality of life
Long-term vs. short-term time orientation
focuses on events that are long term and events that are short-term
Encourage pleasure, enjoyment, spending, consumption, sexual gratification, & general merriment
Encourages control of hedonistic gratifications, and pleasures and enjoyment associated with leisure activities are discouraged
Humility, flexibility, adaptation to the situation, & feeling comfortable about life's paradoxes and inconsistencies
2 ways that GLOBE research helps to clarify understanding of cultural patterns
1.) Separates cultural practices from cultural values
2.) Helps to explain the complex nature of cultural patterns
acronym for Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness; 1st 6 based on Hofstede's work, and last 3 are based on Klockholn and Strodtbeck's work (9 total dimensions)
1.) Power distance
2.) Uncertainty avoidance
3.) Ingroup collectivism
4.) Institutional collectivism
5.) Gender egalitarianism
7.) Performance orientation
8.) Future orientation
9.) Humane orientation
the degree to which cultures believe that social and political power should be distributed disproportionately, shared unequally, & concentrated among a few top decision makers
the extent to which cultures feel threatened by the unpredictability of the future & therefore try to establish more structure in the form of rules, regulations, rituals, and mandatory practices
degree to which people express pride, loyalty, and solidarity with their family or similar group, & it is similar to what Hofstede calls individualism-collectivism
the degree to which cultures support, value, & prefer to distribute rewards based on group vs. individual interests
the extent to which a culture minimizes differences in gender expectations for men vs. women
the extent to which people value & prefer tough aggressiveness or tender nonagressiveness
the degree to which a culture encourages & rewards people for their accomplishments
High performance oriented
get the job done, get results; value competitiveness, assertiveness, & achievement; low context messages
the extent to which a culture plans for forthcoming events; cultures either prefer to focus on the future or the spontaneity of the present moment
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