which of the following is the best way to ensure adequate nutrition and vitamin intake
eat well balanced meals with a variety of foods.
by the age of 6, the rigidity characteristic of the just right stage of developement tends to fade. t/f
which of the following substances has been shown to reduce intelligence and increase behavoir problems in young children
jake father is taking him to the barber for his first real haircut. at first jake is excited about his first trip to the barber, but as soon as the barber makes the first cut in his hair, he becomes very upset and tells his father to make the barber stop. in spite of his fathers efforts to assure jake that his hair will grow backe, jake is exhibiting the Piagetian concept of
pete helps his 2 year old daughter count blocks and measure teaspoons of cocoa. pete is providing
authoritarian parents welcome their childrens opinions and are sensitive to their feelings t/f
an angry 5 year old might stop herself from hitting another child because she has developed
when alone, however, jasmina rarely plays. her motivation to play the piano...
is most likely extrinsic
sara, molly, and shy are playing dress-up. they are all princesses and have built a castle out of cardboard boxes and colored paper. what type of play are the three girls engaging in
james and lila are parents who set limits, enforce rules, and listen receptively to their children. they are exhibiting the:
authoritative pattern of parenting
four year old bill watches television violence at least 2 hours a day. most likely, as he grows older:
he will become aggresive himself
which of the following is a result of extensive, active play in young children
mastary of gross and fine motor skills
Kayla is 4 year old and has recently begun coordinating the two sides of her body more effiently. this developement may be attributed to
growth of the corpus callosum
the increased activity of the amygdala is a reason that children during the play years experience
realla understands that if she had 4 pieces of pizza and we give her 2 more, she will have 6. however she does not know what happens if she had 6 and we take away2. piaget would say that raella
had demonstrated irreversible thinking
when a young child asks why what kind of information is the child most likely seeking
they want to know how the situationn or behavoir will affect them.
a young child will have the most difficult time understanding words which
express the relationships of place and time
public health experts recognize that while injuries to children occur, their effects may be minimized through
compared with other cultures, north american families of preschool children..
use the discipline technique of time out most often to deal with a childs misbehavoir
impulsiveness and perseveration are the same in that theyboth represent
an underdeveloped prefontal coretex
A good magician must get the audience to focus on one aspect of his or her demonstration while manipulating another. this is most easy with preoperational as they are easily fooled with their tendency to
whereas piaget saw cognitive development as a result of individual discovery, Vygotsky attributed it to
socail activities quided by others
young children typically have low self asteem since they compare their abilities with those of peers t/f
psychological control as a means of discipline relies on which of the following
a childs feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents
a play that mimics aggression through chasing or hitting but is not intended to harm is called
rough and tumble play
among the majority of us families adolescents who are successful generous individuals are from
a father want his son to help his mother wash the dishes every night. according to social learning theory,the father should
help out with the dishes himself
a manner of studying human developement that takes into account phases of life is referred to as the
life span perspective
an exampleof a behavoir by a reseacher that would be considered unethical is
changing data to support the hypothesis
aresearcher was interested in whether watching violence affected childrens behavoirs. to examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers. following the films, the behavoirs of the 2 groups werwe compared . this study was an
cognitive theories emphasize the
developement of thought processes and their effect on behavoir attitudes and beliefs
color blindness is more common among males cuz m
most color blindness is inherited through a recessive gene on the X chromosome
____ refersto the effects of environmental forces on the expression of an individuals or species genetic inheritance
Eriksons theory involves developemental crises that involve 2 opposite outcomes, but most people end up somewhere in the middle t/f
every normal human body cell, except for gametes and red blood cells, contain how many chromosomes
if a researcher wanted to stuudy the developement of handwriting ability in children, she could measure the handwriting of a group of 2nd graders and continue to take handwriting samples from these same children each year until sixth grade, this is an example of
if you find a positive correlation between school grades and school attendance, you can conclude that
high attendance and high grades to occur together
in many cultures around the world, people believe that is is the husbands responsibility to earn the majorityof the income for the family this is an example of
in operant conditioning, an organism learns that a
paticular behavoir usually produces a particular consequence
in order to prevent a researchers bias from interfering with ethical data collection and reporting, which of the followin is an important part of the research process
providing details of the study which will allow for replication
interviewing all the siblings for a pair of conjoined twins and asking them about their personal interactions would be an example of
qualitative data collections
even thouht they begin with identical genotypes their phenotypes may differ at birth
most zygotes with serious chromosomal problems
do not begin to develope or are aborted spontaneously
one difference between sperm cells and ova is tha
ova carr an X chromosome whereas sperm carry either X or Y chromosome
one disadvantage of cross sectional research is that differences could be dut to cohort rather than developement t/f
pam attended her 20th high school reunion and had a wonderful time dancing the old dances and singing the old songs. according to multicontextual characteristics of development, her enjoyment may be attributed to
saul and joe are unrelated next door neighbors. what percentage of the human genome do they share
the fetus begins to develope male sex organs i
if the SRY gene on the Y chromosome commands the sex organ to develope
the first hours and days of human development involove the process of
the 5 characteristics that are evaluated in the APGAR are
heart rate,breathing, muscle tone, color and reflexes.
the idea that the study of developement involves several academic fields defines the ----- characteristic of developement
the main advantage of observaton is that the scientist can make determinations about the cause and effect t/f
the more hank eats, the less hungry he feels. the correlation that exists between his food intake and his hunger is
is the process by which a response is gradually learned through reinforcement or punishment
is the process by which a particular action is followed by something desired, which makes the person or animal more likely to repeat the action.
Social learning theory
an extensionof behavorism, emphasizes that people often learn new behavoris through observation and imitation of other people
emphasizes that the way people think and understand the world shpaes their attitudes, beliefs, and behavoirs.
Ecological systems approach
to develope mental research takes into consideration the interrelationship between systems within the person and the environment
Dynamic systems theory
views human development as in a constant state of flux and as the product of the interaction between systems within the person and the environment.
is the unobtrusive watching and recording of participants behavoir in a systmatic and objective manner. either in the laboratory or in a natural setting.
is the research method designed to untangle cuase from effect by manipulating one variable to observe the effect on another variable.
is the variable that is manipulated in an experiment to observe what effect it has on the dependent variable.
is the variable that may change as a result of whatever new condition or situation is added in an experiment. new drug on memory particpants memory is the dependent
is the research method in which information is collected from a large number of people, either through written questionnaires, personal interviews, or some other means.
cross sectional research
groups of people who differ in age but share other important characteristics are compared with reard to the variable under investigation
follows a group of people of different ages over time. thus combining the strengths of the cross sectional and longitudinal methods.
is a number indicating the degree of relationdship between tow variables, such that one is likely to occur when the other occurs or one is likely to increase or decrease when the other increases or decreases
collects non numerical descriptions of participants characteristics behavoir and ideas
Science of human development
seeks to understand how and why all people, everywhere change or remain same over time
is a way to answer questions that requires empirical research and data based conclusions. The five basic steps are- pose a research question, develop a hypothesis, test the hypothesis, draw conclusions, report results which allows replication
means to repeat a test of a research hypothesis and to try to obtain the same results using different participants.
is the false belief that deviations from average development are always inferior.
Life span Perspective-
approaches human development by taking into account all phases of life, not just childhood or adulthood.
is a group of people who because they were born within a few years of each other. Experience many of the same historical changes.
is determined by his or her income, wealth, eduction, place of residence and occupation
is a collection of people whose ancestors were born in the same region, often sharing a language, culture, and religion
- are cells in a person's brain that respond to the observed actions of others in the same way they would if the observer had done that action
is a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older
- interprets human development in forms of inner drives and motives, many of which are irrational and unconscious.
- studies observable behavior, it is also called learning theory because it describes that laws and processes by which behavior is learned.
is the learning process that occurs either through the association of two stimuli (classical Conditioning) or through the use of positive or negative reinforcement or punishment (operant conditioning)
is the learning processes by which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful one so that both are responded to in the same way
is the molecule that contains the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins.
are molecules of DNA that conatin genes organized in precise sequences. each cell contains 46 chromosomes 23pairs
are segments of a chromosome which is a DNA molecule, they are basic units for the transmission of hereditary instructions
is the full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of certain species
developes from one(fertilized egg) zygote that splits apart,producing genetically identical zygotes,
developes from 2 separate ova fertilized by different sperm at roughly the same time, and therefore are no more genetically similar than ordinary siblings, fraternal twins
most human triats are that is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors.
the phenotype reflects the sum of the contributionsof all the alleles invovled. The allesles affecting height for example, interact in this fashion
dominant recessive pattern
is the interaction of a pair of alleles in such a way that the phenotype reveals the influence of the dominate gene more thanthat of the recessive gene.
Carrier of that gene
a person who has a recessive gene that is not expressedin his or her phenotype but than can be passed onto the person offspring
is a stastic that refers to the percentage of variation in a particular trait within a particular population, in a particular context and era that can be traced to genes.
is the most common extra chromosome condition. people with down syndrome age faster than others often have unusaual facial features and heart abnormilites and invarialby develope Alzheimers disease
Fragile X syndrome
is a single gene disorder in which part of the x chromosome is attached by such a thin string of molecules that it seems about to break off. Although the characteristics associated with this syndrome are quite varied, some mental deficiency is relatively common
involves consultations and test through which couples can learn more about their genes, and can thus make informed decisions about the childbearing and child rearing future
is a genetic disorder in which the body cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine which is found in many foods.
The first two weeks of developement after conception characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differenation,
is appox the 3rd -8th week of prenatal developement when the basic forms of all body structures develope
from the 9th week after conception until birth, when organs grow in size and mature in functioning
is the process by which teh developing organism burrows into the placenta that lines the uturus, where it can be nourished and protected during growth.
is the name for the developing human organism fromthe start of the 9th week after conception till birth
Age of Viability
about 22 weeks after conception, the fetus attians the age of viability,at which point it may survive outside the uterus if specialized medical care is available
heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, reflexes a score of 7 or bethher indicates a well baby
Small for gestational age SGA
infants who weigh substanially less than they should given how much time has passed since conception(small for dates)
occurs when the mother of a lowbirth weight infant spends at least one hour a day holding her infant between her breasts
is a new mothers feeling of saness and inadaquecy in the days and weeks after giving birth.
Parent infant bond
strong feelings of attachment between parent and child as parents hold, examine and feed their newborn
Fetal Alchol Syndrome
prenatal alcohol exposure , a cluster of birth defects that include abnormal facial characteristics slow physical growth, behavorial problems, and retarded mental developement
are agents and conditions such as viruses drugs chemicals extreme stress and malnutrition that can impair prenata developement and lead to birth defects or even death
is the harmful effect of substance that occurs when exposure to it reaches a certain level.
is a biological mechanism in whichthe brain continues to grow even though the body stops growing in a malnourished child.
is the nerve fiber tha sends electronic impules from one neuron to the dendrites of other neurons
is a nerve fiber that recieves the electrochemicl impulses transmitted from other neurons via their axons
ist the intersection between the axon of a sending neuron and the dendrites of a receiving neurons
are chemicals in the brain that carry messages from the axon of a sending neuron to the dendrite of a receiving neuron
is the area in the front of the brain that specializes in anticipation planning and impulse control
shaken baby syndrome
is a life threatening condition in which blood vessels in an infants brain have been ruptured and neural connections have been broken cuz the infant has been forcefully shaken back and forth
is a stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed eyelids, dreaming, and rapid brain waves.
Gross motor skills
are physical abilities that demand large body movements such as walking, jumping,and running
fine motor skills
are physical abilities that require precise small movements such as picking up a coin
is the process through which the bodys immune system is stimulated to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease
Sudden infant death syndrome
is a situation in which a seemingly healthy infanct at least 2 months of age suddely stops breathing and dies unexpectedly in his or her sleep
Piagets stages of sensorimotor intelligence
are based on his cognitvie developement theory that infancts think exclusiviely with their senses and motor skills.