How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

299 terms

Psy 237

STUDY
PLAY
which of the following is the best way to ensure adequate nutrition and vitamin intake
eat well balanced meals with a variety of foods.
by the age of 6, the rigidity characteristic of the just right stage of developement tends to fade. t/f
true
which of the following substances has been shown to reduce intelligence and increase behavoir problems in young children
lead
growth and developement in which area of the brain most direclty aids memory
hippocampus
jake father is taking him to the barber for his first real haircut. at first jake is excited about his first trip to the barber, but as soon as the barber makes the first cut in his hair, he becomes very upset and tells his father to make the barber stop. in spite of his fathers efforts to assure jake that his hair will grow backe, jake is exhibiting the Piagetian concept of
Irreversibility
jayson understands 4+6=10 but does not understand that 10-6=4. jayson is displaying
irreversibility
pete helps his 2 year old daughter count blocks and measure teaspoons of cocoa. pete is providing
scaffolding
language to advance thinking through...
social mediation
one underlying factor allowing the development of theory of mind is
neurolgical maturation
overregularization is actually a sign of verbal sophistication t/f
true
while neglect is harmful to a child, it is not as damaging as physical abuse t/f
false
to assume that the world is unchanging is to engage in
static reasoning
authoritarian parents welcome their childrens opinions and are sensitive to their feelings t/f
false
an angry 5 year old might stop herself from hitting another child because she has developed
emotional regulation
when alone, however, jasmina rarely plays. her motivation to play the piano...
is most likely extrinsic
the presence of imaginary friends positvely correlates with an increase in..
intiative
sara, molly, and shy are playing dress-up. they are all princesses and have built a castle out of cardboard boxes and colored paper. what type of play are the three girls engaging in
sociodramatic play
james and lila are parents who set limits, enforce rules, and listen receptively to their children. they are exhibiting the:
authoritative pattern of parenting
four year old bill watches television violence at least 2 hours a day. most likely, as he grows older:
he will become aggresive himself
one of the most important ways in which children learn to control their aggression is through
play
which of the following is a result of extensive, active play in young children
mastary of gross and fine motor skills
Kayla is 4 year old and has recently begun coordinating the two sides of her body more effiently. this developement may be attributed to
growth of the corpus callosum
the increased activity of the amygdala is a reason that children during the play years experience
frightening nightmares
realla understands that if she had 4 pieces of pizza and we give her 2 more, she will have 6. however she does not know what happens if she had 6 and we take away2. piaget would say that raella
had demonstrated irreversible thinking
when a young child asks why what kind of information is the child most likely seeking
they want to know how the situationn or behavoir will affect them.
children with autism have been shown to be impaired in theory of mind t/f
true
a young child will have the most difficult time understanding words which
express the relationships of place and time
public health experts recognize that while injuries to children occur, their effects may be minimized through
injury control
to assume that the world is unchanging is to engage in
static reasoning
according to erikson whcih of the following aids young children in demonstrating initiative
****
compared with other cultures, north american families of preschool children..
use the discipline technique of time out most often to deal with a childs misbehavoir
the presence of imaginary friends positively correlates with an increase in
intiative
children who lack self control are most likely to have parents who are
permissive
one of the worst effects of the media on children is
*****
impulsiveness and perseveration are the same in that theyboth represent
an underdeveloped prefontal coretex
A good magician must get the audience to focus on one aspect of his or her demonstration while manipulating another. this is most easy with preoperational as they are easily fooled with their tendency to
demonstrate centration
whereas piaget saw cognitive development as a result of individual discovery, Vygotsky attributed it to
socail activities quided by others
one factor that strenthens theroy of mind at about age 4 is
having an older sibling
the most common cause of death of children worldwide is
accidents
young children typically have low self asteem since they compare their abilities with those of peers t/f
false
psychological control as a means of discipline relies on which of the following
a childs feelings of guilt and gratitude to the parents
a play that mimics aggression through chasing or hitting but is not intended to harm is called
rough and tumble play
among the majority of us families adolescents who are successful generous individuals are from
authoritative homes
in us how many hours per day does the typical child ages 2 to 4 spend watching tv
****
of the different types of aggression the most destructive and threatening is
bulling aggression
a cross sequential design
followstowor more groups whoare of different ages over a period of time
a father want his son to help his mother wash the dishes every night. according to social learning theory,the father should
help out with the dishes himself
a manner of studying human developement that takes into account phases of life is referred to as the
life span perspective
an exampleof a behavoir by a reseacher that would be considered unethical is
changing data to support the hypothesis
an individuals socioeconomic status includes
levels of education
aresearcher was interested in whether watching violence affected childrens behavoirs. to examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers. following the films, the behavoirs of the 2 groups werwe compared . this study was an
expirement
cognitive theories emphasize the
developement of thought processes and their effect on behavoir attitudes and beliefs
color blindness is more common among males cuz m
most color blindness is inherited through a recessive gene on the X chromosome
____ refersto the effects of environmental forces on the expression of an individuals or species genetic inheritance
Epigenetics
Eriksons theory involves developemental crises that involve 2 opposite outcomes, but most people end up somewhere in the middle t/f
true
every normal human body cell, except for gametes and red blood cells, contain how many chromosomes
23 pairs
external sex organs are fully formed by
the 12th week after conception
if a researcher wanted to stuudy the developement of handwriting ability in children, she could measure the handwriting of a group of 2nd graders and continue to take handwriting samples from these same children each year until sixth grade, this is an example of
longitudinal research
if you find a positive correlation between school grades and school attendance, you can conclude that
high attendance and high grades to occur together
implantation begins approx. how long after conception
10 days
in a normal birth, the action to trigger labor is initiated by the
fetal brain
in classical conditioning an organism learns
to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful one
in many cultures around the world, people believe that is is the husbands responsibility to earn the majorityof the income for the family this is an example of
social construction
in operant conditioning, an organism learns that a
paticular behavoir usually produces a particular consequence
in order to prevent a researchers bias from interfering with ethical data collection and reporting, which of the followin is an important part of the research process
providing details of the study which will allow for replication
interviewing all the siblings for a pair of conjoined twins and asking them about their personal interactions would be an example of
qualitative data collections
low birth weight babies are more likely to become adults who are
overwieght
marsha has twins,a boy and a girl. the twins are
dizygotic
molecules of DNA are called
chromosomes
monozygotic twins
even thouht they begin with identical genotypes their phenotypes may differ at birth
most zygotes with serious chromosomal problems
do not begin to develope or are aborted spontaneously
one difference between sperm cells and ova is tha
ova carr an X chromosome whereas sperm carry either X or Y chromosome
one disadvantage of cross sectional research is that differences could be dut to cohort rather than developement t/f
true
pam attended her 20th high school reunion and had a wonderful time dancing the old dances and singing the old songs. according to multicontextual characteristics of development, her enjoyment may be attributed to
cohort effect
phenotype refers to
the actual expression of genetic tratis
recessive X linked genes are more
likely to be expressed in a mans phenotype
saul and joe are unrelated next door neighbors. what percentage of the human genome do they share
99.5
sperm and ova are called
gametes
the chromosomal make up of a normal male is
XY
the chromosomal makeup of a normal femle is
XY
the critical factor in attaining the age of viability
is having adequate brain developement
the fetus begins to develope male sex organs i
if the SRY gene on the Y chromosome commands the sex organ to develope
the final step in scientific method is to
report the results
the first hours and days of human development involove the process of
duplication,division,and differentiation
the 5 characteristics that are evaluated in the APGAR are
heart rate,breathing, muscle tone, color and reflexes.
the head begins to take shape in the
fourth week
the idea that the study of developement involves several academic fields defines the ----- characteristic of developement
multidiciplinary
the main advantage of observaton is that the scientist can make determinations about the cause and effect t/f
false
the more hank eats, the less hungry he feels. the correlation that exists between his food intake and his hunger is
negative
the nuerual tube will become the
brain and spinal cord.
Apagar test
heart rate, breathing muscletone, color, reflex
cross sectional research
quickest and least expensive way to study developement
biosocial congnitive and phsychosocial
3 types of domains of human developemnet
how and why people change across a life span
the science of human developement best be described
Operant Conditioning
is the process by which a response is gradually learned through reinforcement or punishment
Reinforcement
is the process by which a particular action is followed by something desired, which makes the person or animal more likely to repeat the action.
Social learning theory
an extensionof behavorism, emphasizes that people often learn new behavoris through observation and imitation of other people
CognitiveTheory
emphasizes that the way people think and understand the world shpaes their attitudes, beliefs, and behavoirs.
Ecological systems approach
to develope mental research takes into consideration the interrelationship between systems within the person and the environment
Dynamic systems theory
views human development as in a constant state of flux and as the product of the interaction between systems within the person and the environment.
Scientific Observation
is the unobtrusive watching and recording of participants behavoir in a systmatic and objective manner. either in the laboratory or in a natural setting.
Experiment
is the research method designed to untangle cuase from effect by manipulating one variable to observe the effect on another variable.
Independent variable
is the variable that is manipulated in an experiment to observe what effect it has on the dependent variable.
Dependent variable
is the variable that may change as a result of whatever new condition or situation is added in an experiment. new drug on memory particpants memory is the dependent
Survey
is the research method in which information is collected from a large number of people, either through written questionnaires, personal interviews, or some other means.
cross sectional research
groups of people who differ in age but share other important characteristics are compared with reard to the variable under investigation
logitudinal research
follows a group of people of different ages over time. thus combining the strengths of the cross sectional and longitudinal methods.
correlation
is a number indicating the degree of relationdship between tow variables, such that one is likely to occur when the other occurs or one is likely to increase or decrease when the other increases or decreases
Quantitative research
expressed in numbers
qualitatitve research
collects non numerical descriptions of participants characteristics behavoir and ideas
Science of human development
seeks to understand how and why all people, everywhere change or remain same over time
Scientific Method
is a way to answer questions that requires empirical research and data based conclusions. The five basic steps are- pose a research question, develop a hypothesis, test the hypothesis, draw conclusions, report results which allows replication
Replication-
means to repeat a test of a research hypothesis and to try to obtain the same results using different participants.
Nature
refers to all the traits that a person inherits from his or her parents.
Nurture
refers to all the environmental influences that affect development
Critical Period
a time when a particular type of development must occur
Sensitive Period
- is a time when a particular type of development happens most easily
Difference-Equals-Deficit Error
is the false belief that deviations from average development are always inferior.
Life span Perspective-
approaches human development by taking into account all phases of life, not just childhood or adulthood.
Cohort-
is a group of people who because they were born within a few years of each other. Experience many of the same historical changes.
Socioeconomic Status-
is determined by his or her income, wealth, eduction, place of residence and occupation
Ethnic Group-
is a collection of people whose ancestors were born in the same region, often sharing a language, culture, and religion
Social Construction-
is an idea that is based on shared perceptions, not on objective reality
Epigenetic refers
to the effects of environmental forces on how genes are expressed.
Mirror Neurons
- are cells in a person's brain that respond to the observed actions of others in the same way they would if the observer had done that action
Developmental theory-
is a systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a framework for understanding how and why people change as they grow older
Psychoanalytic theory
- interprets human development in forms of inner drives and motives, many of which are irrational and unconscious.
Behaviorism
- studies observable behavior, it is also called learning theory because it describes that laws and processes by which behavior is learned.
Conditioning-
is the learning process that occurs either through the association of two stimuli (classical Conditioning) or through the use of positive or negative reinforcement or punishment (operant conditioning)
Classical conditioning-
is the learning processes by which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful one so that both are responded to in the same way
DNA
is the molecule that contains the chemical instructions for cells to manufacture various proteins.
Chromosomes
are molecules of DNA that conatin genes organized in precise sequences. each cell contains 46 chromosomes 23pairs
Gamates
are the human reproductive cells
Zygote
is the single cell formed during conception by the fusing of two gamates a sperm and an ova
Genes
are segments of a chromosome which is a DNA molecule, they are basic units for the transmission of hereditary instructions
genotypes
the total of all the genes a person inherits his or her genetic potential
Allele
is one of the normal versions of a gene that has several possible sequences of base pairs
genome
is the full set of genes that are the instructions to make an individual member of certain species
Monozygotic
developes from one(fertilized egg) zygote that splits apart,producing genetically identical zygotes,
Dizygotic twins
developes from 2 separate ova fertilized by different sperm at roughly the same time, and therefore are no more genetically similar than ordinary siblings, fraternal twins
XX
is the 23rd chromosome pair that in humans determines that the developing fetus will be female
XY
is the 23rd chromosome pair that in humans determines that the developing fetus will be male
polygenic
most human traits; they are affected by many genes.
multifactorial
most human triats are that is influenced by many factors, including genetic and environmental factors.
additive genes
the phenotype reflects the sum of the contributionsof all the alleles invovled. The allesles affecting height for example, interact in this fashion
dominant recessive pattern
is the interaction of a pair of alleles in such a way that the phenotype reveals the influence of the dominate gene more thanthat of the recessive gene.
Carrier of that gene
a person who has a recessive gene that is not expressedin his or her phenotype but than can be passed onto the person offspring
Heritability
is a stastic that refers to the percentage of variation in a particular trait within a particular population, in a particular context and era that can be traced to genes.
Down Syndrome
is the most common extra chromosome condition. people with down syndrome age faster than others often have unusaual facial features and heart abnormilites and invarialby develope Alzheimers disease
Fragile X syndrome
is a single gene disorder in which part of the x chromosome is attached by such a thin string of molecules that it seems about to break off. Although the characteristics associated with this syndrome are quite varied, some mental deficiency is relatively common
Genetic counseling
involves consultations and test through which couples can learn more about their genes, and can thus make informed decisions about the childbearing and child rearing future
Phenylketonuria
is a genetic disorder in which the body cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine which is found in many foods.
Germinal period
The first two weeks of developement after conception characterized by rapid cell division and the beginning of cell differenation,
Embryonic Period
is appox the 3rd -8th week of prenatal developement when the basic forms of all body structures develope
Fetal period
from the 9th week after conception until birth, when organs grow in size and mature in functioning
placenta
is the organ that developes in the uterus to protect and nourish the developing person
Implantation
is the process by which teh developing organism burrows into the placenta that lines the uturus, where it can be nourished and protected during growth.
Embryo
is the name for the developin human organism from abou the 3rd-8th week after conception
Fetus
is the name for the developing human organism fromthe start of the 9th week after conception till birth
sonogram
is an image of an unborn fetus produced with high frequency sound waves
Age of Viability
about 22 weeks after conception, the fetus attians the age of viability,at which point it may survive outside the uterus if specialized medical care is available
Apgar Scale
heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, color, reflexes a score of 7 or bethher indicates a well baby
Doula
is a woman who works alongside medical staff to assist a woman through labor and delivery
C-section
the fetus is removed from the mother 33%
Low birth weight
a birth weight of 5.5 lbs , are at risk for manyimmediate and long term problems.
Very low birth wieght
less than 3#s 5 oz 1500grams
Extremely low birth weight
less the 2#. 3oz
Preterm birth
when an infant is born 3 or more weeks before the due date,
Small for gestational age SGA
infants who weigh substanially less than they should given how much time has passed since conception(small for dates)
Kangaroo care
occurs when the mother of a lowbirth weight infant spends at least one hour a day holding her infant between her breasts
postpartum depression
is a new mothers feeling of saness and inadaquecy in the days and weeks after giving birth.
Parent infant bond
strong feelings of attachment between parent and child as parents hold, examine and feed their newborn
Fetal Alchol Syndrome
prenatal alcohol exposure , a cluster of birth defects that include abnormal facial characteristics slow physical growth, behavorial problems, and retarded mental developement
Teratogens
are agents and conditions such as viruses drugs chemicals extreme stress and malnutrition that can impair prenata developement and lead to birth defects or even death
Threshold effect
is the harmful effect of substance that occurs when exposure to it reaches a certain level.
norm
is an average or standard measurement calculated for a specific population
head sparing
is a biological mechanism in whichthe brain continues to grow even though the body stops growing in a malnourished child.
neuron
nerve cell, main component of the central nervous system especially the brain
cortex
is the outer layer of teh brain that is involved in most thinking feeling, and sensing.
axon
is the nerve fiber tha sends electronic impules from one neuron to the dendrites of other neurons
dendrite
is a nerve fiber that recieves the electrochemicl impulses transmitted from other neurons via their axons
synapse
ist the intersection between the axon of a sending neuron and the dendrites of a receiving neurons
neurotransmitters
are chemicals in the brain that carry messages from the axon of a sending neuron to the dendrite of a receiving neuron
prefrontal cortex
is the area in the front of the brain that specializes in anticipation planning and impulse control
shaken baby syndrome
is a life threatening condition in which blood vessels in an infants brain have been ruptured and neural connections have been broken cuz the infant has been forcefully shaken back and forth
REM sleep
is a stage of sleep characterized by flickering eyes behind closed eyelids, dreaming, and rapid brain waves.
reflex
is an unlearned, involuntary action or movement emitted in response to a specific stimulus
Gross motor skills
are physical abilities that demand large body movements such as walking, jumping,and running
fine motor skills
are physical abilities that require precise small movements such as picking up a coin
sensation
is the response of a sensory system when it detects a stimulus
perceptions
is the mental processing of sensory information when the brain interprets it
binocular vision
is the ability to focus both eyes in coordinated fashion in order to see one image
immunizations
is the process through which the bodys immune system is stimulated to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease
Sudden infant death syndrome
is a situation in which a seemingly healthy infanct at least 2 months of age suddely stops breathing and dies unexpectedly in his or her sleep
co sleeping
is a custom in which parents and their infants sleep together
Piagets stages of sensorimotor intelligence
are based on his cognitvie developement theory that infancts think exclusiviely with their senses and motor skills.
Piagets theory of assimulation
...
Piagetstheory of accoodation
...
Object Permanance
...
Little Scientist
...
Information processing theory
...
visual cliff
...
reminder session
...
child directed speech
...
babbling
...
naming explosion
...
holophrase
...
language acquisition device
...
a social smile
...
stranger wariness
...
self awareness
...
trust verus mistrust
...
autonomy versus shame and doubt
...
social learning
...
working model
...
ethnotheory
...
temperment
...
big five
...
proximal parenting
...
distal parenting
...
goodness of fit
...
sychrony
...
still face technique
...
attachment
...
secure attachment
...
insecure avoidant attachment
...
insecure resistant/ambivalent attachment
...
disorganized attachment
...
strange situation
...
social referencing
...
Family day care
...
Center day care
...
Myelination
...
corpus collosum
...
lateralization
...
perservation
...
amygadala
...
hippocampus
...
hypothalmus
...
preoperational intelligence
...
centration
...
Egocentrism
...
focus on apperance
...
static reasoning
...
Irreversibilitity
...
conservation
...
Vygotsky apprentice in thinking
...
vygotsky zone of proximal developement
...
scaffolding
...
private speech
...
social mediation
...
theory-thoery
...
theory of mind
...
fast mapping
...
overregularization
o
balanced bilingual
...
Reggio Emilia approach
...
project head start
...
injury control
...
primary prevention
...
secondary prevention
...
tertiary preventino
...
child maltretment
...
child abuse
...
child neglect
...
subtantiated maltreatment
...
permanency planning
...
foster care
...
kinship care
...
Emotional regulation
...
initiative versus guilt
...
self esteem
...
intrinsic motivation
...
extrinsicmotivation
...
psychopathology
...
externalizing problems
...
internalizing prolems
...
rough and tumble play
...
sociodramatic play
...
Authoritarian parenting
...
permissive parenting
...
neglectful univolved parenting
...
empathy
...
antipathy
...
antisocial behavoir
...
instrumental aggression
...
reactive aggression
...
relational aggression
...
bullying agression
...
psychological control
...
timeout
...
sex difference
...
gender difference
...
phallic stage
...
oedipus complex
...
superego
...
electra commplex
...
gender schema
...
androgyny
...