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Pharm Chem Final
Terms in this set (103)
Which of the following amino acids serves as a counter ion to carboxylic acid functional groups?
An internal standard is added to a sample in order to
Account for any variation in injection volume
Arrange the following structures in INCREASING order of water solubility
ethanol< benzene<propionic acid< acetic acid
Arrange the functional groups in order of increasing difference in electronegativity
C-H = S-H < N-H < O-H
Which of the following is a major active metabolite of carbamazepine?
Drugs that behave like morphine but also have antagonist activity are known as
For determination of the partition coefficient (Po:w), which of the following statements is CORRECT?
A drug that has a PO:W =1 partitions in equal amounts in the lipid and aqueous phase
For drug partitioning and liquid-liquid extraction which of the following statements is TRUE?
The partition coefficient (K) of a drug can be calculated from the concentration of the drug in the organic phase divided by the concentration in the aqueous phase, AND the ionized form of a drug remains in the organic phase of an extraction, AND Ionized forms of a drug are more lipophilic than the unionized form of a drug
For UV absorbance spectrophotometry, the sample cell is made of
Which atom provides protection from metabolic instability if replacing a hydrogen on an aromatic ring system due to its similar radius?
Glucuronide conjugates are formed with
Carboxylic acid groups, thiols, and amines
How does oseltamivir exhibit it's antiviral activity?
Through selective inhibition of the enzyme neuraminidase
On which receptor does albuterol act as an agonist for the treatment of asthma?
Adrenergic Beta-2 Receptors
Which biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) drug category presents with both high permeability and solubility?
BCS Class 2
HPLC eluents for reversed phase columns should be kept below pH 8 to
Prevent column deterioration
Which of the following distinguish biopharmaceutical agents from small molecular weight drugs?
Molecular weight, off- target activity, and product composition/identity
entirely derived from mice
Fc fragment from mouse, Fab fragment human
Antigen-binding regions are murine while the rest is human
entirely derived from human
Beta-receptors antagonists are metabolized primarily by either the kidneys or the liver. What is a primary determinant of whether the drug is metabolized by the liver or the kidney?
Which synthesis scheme provides a higher yield for many scale-up synthesis approaches?
If peak A has a retention time rA = 4 min and peak B has a retention time of rB= 6 min, what is the resolution of these two peaks given that both have a peak of 0.5 min?
4 B-A/peak = res
If the acidic pKa of a drug is 4, that means that
it is mainly ionized (>98%) at physiological pH of 7.4
Infrared analysis can be performed on samples:
in solution, as gasses, and as a halide disk
What kind of reaction is the Frieden-Crafts Alkylation?
The red square highlights a named reaction that leads to the synthesis of lovastatin. What is the name of this synthesis step?
In the laboratory a drug sample is considered a false positive if:
it tests positive for a drug that is not present
What is not a physiological role of vitamin D?
Light and Dark Vision
Ionization in a mass spectrometer produced by collision of the analyze with gas molecules is known as:
Linearity of the Beer Lambert law is affected by:
Fluorescence of the sample, on-monochromatic light, and electrostatic interactions between molecules
Which of the following is a correct pharmacodynamic property of talinolol?
It is an adrenergic beta-1 receptor antagonist
How is the log BB or B/P calculated?
Log of the brain AUC divided by the log of the plasma AUC
On a reversed phase HPLC column, which of the following compounds is likely to elute first?
Physical decomposition may result in:
Changes in the crystal form of a drug, Aggregation of drug particles in a solution, and Loss of volatile compounds from a sample
Reducing the particle size of the HPLC column packing material:
Samples are derivatized prior to GC analysis for the following reason:
To increase stability at elevated temperature
What is a measure of specific permeability and binding within the brain?
Permeability surface area product (PS)
The following graph depicts what kind of model:
2 compartment IV pharmacokinetic model
The definition of ED50 is
the dose at which 50% of animals present with the therapeutic effect of a drug
The LADME model involves the following steps:
Liberation, Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion
In a combined PK/PD model, what measure is used on the X-axis shown in red below?
In the US, which office will review an investigational new drug (IND) submission?
Center for Drug Evaluation and Research
The presence of an ion 2 amu's higher than the molecular ion in the mass spectrum is likely due to :
The purpose of drug biotransformation is
The make hydrophilic drugs more lipid soluble
The therapeutic window can be calculated by
Subtracting the MEC from the MTC
Which kinetic is being used for prediction of accelerated drug stability testing at elevated temperatures and humidities?
Ultraviolet light has a wavelength range of
What are important parameters for the validation of an analytical procedure?
Extraction recovery, sensitivity, and reproducibilty
What regulation provides the framework for the conduct of a non-clinical laboratory study?
Good Laboratory Practice
How are the two peptide chains of insulin connected to one another?
through disulfide bonds
For what major indication is the drug carbamazepine used?
What are the structural requirements for norepinephrine activity?
Polar hydroxyl group on aromatic ring system in para-and meta-position
Which enzyme does the plant extract St. John's Wort Inhibit?
What does the abbreviation SOP stand for in a laboratory setting?
Standard Operating Procedure
How many subunits does an ion channel consist of?
What is/are some of the current approaches to developing new drugs?
Ethnopharmacology, in vitro screening, and computational chemistry
What is important information that should be included in a MSDS?
Handling and Storage, Health Hazards and first aid instructions, and physical and chemical properties
Which of the following elements is not considered a polar atom as part of the polar surface area?
Which of the following atoms has approximately the same radius as a hydrogen atom?
What is the correct order of stability for the given charged entity from highest stability to lowest stability?
Phenyl > term butyl > iso-propyl > methyl
What property of citalopram has led to the development and marketing of escitalopram?
Higher potency of the isomer
What is the difference between the logP and the logD?
LogD has been adjusted to the specific pH
Which of the two molecules has the larger polar surface area?
Molecule B (one with cyclic O ring)
Which BCS classification shows low solubility and high permeability?
BCS class 2
When submitting an IND application which form number is always included?
In Which physiological process is calcium not involved?
What is the precursor of vitamin D in animals?
In organic synthesis development, what is another name used for the disconnection approach?
Which corticosteroid is used as a standard in evaluating both glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid activities?
Which enzyme is responsible for the formation of the toxic acetaminophen metabolite?
CYP (eg CYP2E1)
Which feature(s) set propranolol apart from all other beta adrenergic receptor antagonists?
Which of the answers describes the following molecule?
Both an alkaloid and an ester are present in the structure
Which of the following statements is/are true?
Chemically unstable drugs are susceptible to hydrolysis, photolysis, and effects of temperature
Which of the following parameters does not affect the Rf value of drugs separated by TLC?
The distance traveled by the solvent
Which of the following statements is correct about the half-life of a drug?
Changes in clearance CL and volume of distribution do not influence the half-life
Which of the following is not part of a NMR spectrometer?
Which of the following statements is false regarding NMR?
Every isotope has an atomic spin
Which of the following is false about supercritical fluids?
A supercritical fluid is a liquid
Which of the following compounds does not present with an IR spectrum?
Which of the following HPLC detectors is the least sensitive?
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
Morphine is immediately metabolized to heroin in the body
Which of the following statements is correct?
nano-opioid receptor agonists cause respiratory depression, analgesia, and emesis
Which of the following is a major efflux transporter?
Which of the following parameters affect how well an analyze extracts into an organic solvent?
Degree of ionization, pH of the drug environment, and pKa of the drug
Which of the following parameters is not part of the rule of 4 for P-gp substrates?
PSA < 80
Which structural modification has been made to terbutaline to increase its half-life resulting in bambuterol?
Addition of amide to form pro-drug
Which statement about pharmacodynamic assays is incorrect?
Time-Resolved Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer assays use an organic dye as the probe
Which animal model is commonly used to test drugs for antidepressant activity?
Forced Swimming Test
What is the mechanism of antibacterial action for sulfonamide antibiotics?
Inhibition of bacterial folic acid synthesis
What structural modification on the glucocorticoid bethamethasone results in the most potent prodrugs?
Diester in positions C-21 and C-17
Which of the following statements is true regarding the properties of acids or bases?
An acid is a substance which can be charged or uncharged that is capable of donating a proton
Which of the following statements is false?
Proton transfer can only occur in water
Which of the following statements is false about type 1 errors in statistics?
Type 1 errors are made when statistical test fails to show a difference between the null and the alternative hypothesis
Which of the following list demonstrates the sequential steps of solid phase drug extraction?
Wetting, change pH environment, sample application, rinse, elution
Which of the following are advantages of solid phase extraction compared to liquid-liquid extraction?
selectivity, reproducibility, and speed
Which of the following statements are false?
the primary use of TLC is as a confirmatory technique
Which of the following statements are correct regarding TLC?
Mobile phase composition is dependent on the class/classes of drugs to be separated and the type of stationary phase chosen
Which of the following functional groups forms radicals to cause oxidative stress as a mechanism of toxicity?
What toxic metabolite does cyclophosphamide form that is also its major mechanism used in chemotherapy?
Why is a m/z signal of 15 a common mass fragment?
it indicates the presence of methyl groups
Which of the following is not a mutagenic in vitro assay?
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor assay
All of the following are strategies to improve aqueous drug solubility in formulation except for:
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