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Barron's Chapter 1 Terms


Human-induced changes on the natural environment.


Theory and practice of making visual representations of the earth's surface in the form of maps.

Cultural Ecology

The study of the interactions between societies and the nat-ural environments they live in.

Earth System Science

Systematic approach to physical geography that looks at the interaction between the earth's physical systems and processes on a global scale.

Environmental Geography

The intersection between human and physical geography, which explores the spatial impacts humans have on the physical environment and vice versa.


The head librarian at Alexandria during the third century B.C.; he was one of the first cartographers. Performed a remarkably accurate com¬putation of the earth's circumference. He is also credited with coining the term "geography."

Fertile Crescent

Name given to crescent-shaped area of fertile land stretch-ing from the lower Nile valley, along the east Mediterranean coast, and into Syria and present-day Iraq where agriculture and early civilization first began about 800

Geographical Information Systems

A set of computer tools used to capture, store, transform, analyze, and display geographic data.

Global Postitioning System (GPS)

A set of satellites used to help determine location anywhere on the earth's surface with a portable electronic device.


Pertaining to the unique facts or characteristics of a particular place.

George Perkins Marsh

Inventor, diplomat, politician, and scholar, his clas¬sic work, Man and Nature, or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action, provided the first description of the extent to which natural systems had been impacted by human actions.

Natural Landscape

The physical landscape or environment that has not been affected by human activities.


Concepts or rules that can be applied universally.

W. D. Pattison

He claimed that geography drew from four distinct traditions: the earth-science tradition, the culture-environment tradition, the locational tradition, and the area-analysis tradition.

Physical Geography

The realm of geography that studies the structures, processes, distributions, and change through time of the natural phenomena of the earth's surface.


Roman geographer-astronomer and author of Guide to Geography which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude.

Qualitative Data

Data associated with a more humanistic approach to geog-raphy, often collected through interviews, empirical observations, or the interpretation of texts, artwork, old maps, and other archives.

Quantitative Data

Data associated with mathematical models and statistical techniques used to analyze spatial location and association.

Quantitative Revolution

A period in human geography associated with the widespread adoption of mathematical models and statistical techniques.


A territory that encompasses many places that share similar attributes (may be physical, cultural, or both) in comparison with the attributes of places elsewhere.

Regional Geography

The study of geographic regions.

Remote Sensing

Observation and mathematical measurement of the earth's surface using aircraft and satellites. The sensors include both photographic images, thermal images, multispectral scanners, and radar images

Carl Sauer

Geographer from the University of California at Bed defined the concept of cultural landscape as the fundamental un graphical analysis. This landscape results from interaction betwee and the physical environment. Sauer argued that virtually no land escaped alteration by human activities.

Sense of Place

Feelings evoked by people as a result of certain eJ and memories associated with a particular place.

Spatial Perspective

An intellectual framework that looks at the locations of specific phenomena, how and why that phenomena is , and, finally, how it is spatially related to phenomena in other place


The concept of using the earth's resources in such they provide for people's needs in the present without diminishing ability to provide for future generations.

Systematic Geography

The study of the earth's integrated systems instead of focusing on particular phenomena in a single place.

Thematic Layers

Individual maps of specific features that are of another in a Geographical Information System to understand spatial relationship.

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