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Human bio exam 1 study guide
Terms in this set (67)
What is biology?
Biology is the study of life and living organisms.
What are the basic features that all living organisms share?
Nutrients, H2O, energy, reproduce, cells, (humans need oxygen)
Levels of organization of living things
How do humans acquire energy? Where is energy stored?
Humans acquire energy through eating food, energy is stored in food comes from the sun.
What is metabolism?
Metabolism is all the chemical reactions in a cell.
What is homeostasis? Provide an example of homeostasis in your body? How is homeostasis maintained?
Homeostasis is maintaining a stable internal environment. Homeostasis in our body is sweating when working out. Homeostasis is maintained by our bodies responding to stimuli.
What is dna?
DNA is the genetic material for all living organisms as DNA provides the instructions that directs the structure and function of each cell.
What is the difference between growth and development?
Development is when the first cell becomes a multicelled adult. Meanwhile, growth is an increase in cell number, size, and volume.
What is evolution? What is natural selection? What adaptation occurred in the Tibetan population living at high elevation?
Evolution is the change in gene pool/DNA and it happens over time. Natural selection is the survival of the fittest (based on phenotype). The adaptation that the Tibetan population living at high elevation includes an increase in red blood cells.
What are the 3 domains that classify life? Provide an example for each
The 3 domains are Eukarya, Arcaea, and Bacteria.
What is science? What are the steps to the scientific method? Be able to analyze data, read a graph, and determine the control, independent and dependent variable in an experiment. Be able to write a hypothesis and design experimental plan given a stating observation.
Science is a way of knowing about the natural world. The steps of the scientific method are observation (question), hypothesis (if, then), test/experiment, result, and conclusion. Independent variable=researcher changes or controls. Dependent variable=researcher observed or measures
What is chemistry?
Chemistry is the science that deals with the properties, composition, and structure of the substances, such as elements and compounds, the transformations they undergo, and the energy that is released or absorbed during these processes.
What is an element?
Elements are the basic building blocks of natter
What is an atom?
Atoms are the smallest unit of an element
What are the three subatomic particles and what are their locations and charges?
The 3 subatomic particles are protons, electrons, and neutrons. Protons are located in the nucleus and are positively charged. Neutrons are located in the nucleus and are neutral. Electrons are negatively charged and are located in the nucleus.
Atomic number and atomic mass;be able to determine protons, neutrons and electrons based on these values.
Atomic number is the number of protons in the atomic nucleus. Atomic mass is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an element's atoms.
What are isotopes? Determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons given atom and mass number.
Isotopes are forms of an element that differ in the number of neutrons their atoms carry.
What are radioisotopes?
Radioisotopes are isotopes with an unstable nucleus (can be used as a diagnostic tool).
What are valence electrons?
Valence electrons are the number of electrons in the outermost shell.
What are ions? Which elements are likely to form an ionic bond?
Jobs are atoms with different numbers of protons and electrons. The elements to form ionic bonds are the ones in group 1A and 7A (except H).
How do the number of electrons relate to the stability or reactivity of an atom.
The number of electrons relate to the stability or reactivity of an atom because if there are more protons than neutrons then the atom is stable but if there are more electrons than protons then the atom is very reactive.
What allows atoms to interact?
A chemical bond allows atoms to interact whether they share or transferring electrons
What is the difference between a molecule and compound? Examples of each.
A molecule is a group of two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds while a compound is a molecule that has atoms of more than one element. An example of a molecule is N3. An example of a compound is H2O.
What is electronegativity?
Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons.
What are ionic, non polar, and polar covalent bonds? What does electronegativity have to do with polar covalent bonds?
They are the 3 types of bonds. Ionic bonds are atoms with different numbers of protons and electrons, they gain or lose (medium). Non-polar covalent bonds are atoms that share electrons (strongest). Polar covalent bonds are bonds that atoms have unequal attraction for electrons and so the sharing is unequal. Electronegativity is strongest with non polar covalent bonds and weaker with polar covalent and ionic bonds.
What are hydrogen bonds? Why does water form hydrogen bonds?
Hydrogen bonds are a weak bond between two molecules from an attraction between a proton in one molecule and an electronegative atom in the other. Water forms hydrogen bonds because of the polar covalent bonds in water molecules as hydrogen bonds holds more than one water molecule.
What about water's structure allows it to be so versatile?
Waters structure has a high heat capacity and it is also a solvent and it can be a liquid, solid, or ga.
Describe the properties of water.
Polar, hydrogen bonding, solvent, solid (ice=floats), liquid, gas, and high heat capacity
What are the 4 properties of water that contribute to providing a suitable environment for life?
The 4 properties are cohesive behavior, ability to moderate temperature, expansion upon freezing, and versatility as a solvent.
Understand the difference between a solute and a solvent. What is a solution?
A solute is the substance that is dissolved and a solvent is the dissolving agent of a solution. A solution is a liquid that is a completely homogeneous mixture of substances.
Hydrophobic vs hydrophilic.
Hydrophobic does not like water, an example is a fatty acid tail. Hydrophilic loves water, an example is a phospholipid
What is the difference between cohesion and adhesion?
Cohesion is when water interacts "stick" to other molecules meanwhile adhesion is when water is interacting "sticking" to something else (ex: plastic, desk, etc.)
What is an acid vs base??
Acids are substances that dissociate and release hydrogen ion (H+). Bases are substances that take up hydrogen ions (H+) or release hydroxide ions (OH-).
Understand the pH scale
-measure of hydrogen ion (H+) concentration
-working scale between 0 and 14 with 7 being neutral
-a pH below 7 is acidic and above 7 is basic
-concentration of hydrogen ions between each whole number changes by a factor of 10
What are buffers? Why are they important to human cells?
Buffers are substances that minimize changes in concentrations of H+ and OH- in a solution. They are important to human cells because it keeps an internal pH of most living cells to remain close to 7.
What is the blood buffering system? (Equations)
H+ + HCO-3 <-> H2CO3
(Base) OH- + H2CO3 -> HCO3- + H2O
(Acid) H2CO3 <—- H+ + HCO-3
What happens when you add acidic or basic solutions to the blood?
Excess H+ combined with bicarbonate, basic solutions or acidic solutions both go through the buffering system to make them neutral.
What does it mean to be organic?
Being organic means any substance containing carbon-based compounds (and hydrogen), especially produced or derived from living organism.
What makes carbon so versatile?
Carbon is versatile because it can form single, double, and triple bonds.
What are polymers?
Polymers are many monomers linked together.
What are monomers?
Monomers are individual repeating subunit (building blocks).
What process creates polymers?
Dehydration (removing water) creates polymers.
What type of reaction breaks large polymers/macromolecules?
The type of reaction that breaks large polymers is hydrolysis (adding water).
What are examples of carbohydrates?
Examples of carbohydrates are cellulose, starch, glycogen.
Provide an example of a monomer/polymer of carbohydrates.
An example of a carbohydrate monomer is glucose and and example of a polymer is glycogen.
Understand the structure and function of glycogen, starch, and cellulose.
Glycogen is the storage from in animals. Starch is the storage form in plants. Cellulose provides structure to plants in n stems or leaves.
What are carbohydrates used for?
Carbohydrates are used for short and long term energy storage.
What are lipids? What elements are found in am lipids? What are the 3 main types we learned about?
Lipids are fat and fatty acids. The elements found in all lipids are hydrophobic, not good water soluble, and good source of fat. The 3 main types we learned about are fats, phospholipids, and steroids.
What are fats? What are they used for?
Fats are solids at room temperature such as butter. Fats are used for energy.
What has more stored energy lipids or carbohydrates?
Lipids have more stored energy.
Describe how a triglyceride is out together.
A triglyceride is out together by 2 monomers (glycerol and FAtty Acids 3). As the water leaves by a dehydration reaction, forming bonds with glycerol.
What makes a fat saturated vs unsaturated?
A fat saturated is because it contains single bonds (C-H) example is butter. An unsaturated fat occurs because there are double bonds, an example is oils/liquids.
What is the common structure of all steroids? What are they used for?
The structure of all steroids is four fused carbon rings. Steroids are used for cholesterol and sex hormones.
Describe a phospholipid. Where are they found? How would they arrange in water?
A phospholipid is found in a cell membrane and they have a hydrophilic side and the fatty acid tails have a hydrophobic side and they are bi layered. The two heads at the opposite ends like water.
What are the monomers of a protein?
The monomers of a protein are amino acids.
What is a protein?
Proteins are organic compounds that consist of one or more chains of amino acids (polypeptides).
Parts of amino acid. Which parts are conserved which part changes?
An amino acid is an organic compound with a carbonyl group, amine group, and a characteristic side group (R group). The amine group is the conserved part. The R group is what changes.
How will hydrophobic/hydrophilic side chains fold inside/outside of the protein and why?
The water leaves so the amino acids can link together. Covalent bonds become a peptide bond. The four levels of proteins structure. First structure is unique sequence of amino acids, 2 consists of coils and folds in the polypeptide chain, 3 interaction among various side chains (R group) 3-D shape, and 4 consists of more than 1 polypeptide.
What are proteins used for?
Proteins are used for muscles, hair, immune system, and enzymes.
How do 2 amino acids become linked?
By peptide bonds that are made when you perform a de hydration reaction.
What are nucleic acids?
Nucleic acids are made of nucleotide monomers.
What are DNA and RNA how are they different?
DNA is (instructions) auger deoxyribose bases include A,T,C, and G and double stranded. RNA is (messenger) sugar ribose bases include A, U, C, and G and single stranded.
What are nucleic acids used for?
Nucleic acids are used for the storage and the expression of genetic information.
What are the 3 basic components of nucleotide? How are they arranged?
The 3 components are a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
What nucleotides are found in dna?
They are adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine.
What nucleotides are found in rna?
They are adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil.
Which nucleotides pair together in DNA?
In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine and guanine pairs with cytosine because it's a double stranded molecule.
Ex: strand 1 A-T-C-G-G-A
Strand 2 T-A-G-C-C-T
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