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Terms in this set (44)
The protons that make up the proton gradient used during the light reactions of photosynthesis come from?
H2O,The splitting of H20 molecules in the light reactions gives rise to the protons needed for this gradient.
During cellular respiration, _______ is the step that produces the greatest number of ATP molecules.
oxidative phosphorylation, Over 80 percent of the ATP produced during cellular respiration is the result of oxidative phosphorylation.
Antenna complexes, ETCs, and carbon fixation are all found in?
Animal Cells, Bacterial Cells, Plant Cells, and Mitochondria.
What process in cellular respiration is essentially the reverse of carbon fixation in photosynthesis?
Krebs Cycle, Carbon fixation converts CO2 into glucose, and the Krebs Cycle essentially reverses this process.
Before a cell can enter mitosis, it must first pass through?
Interphase, G1 Phase, G2 Phase, and S Phase.The entirety of interphase (G1,G2 , and S) consists of events that are necessary precursors to mitosis.
Which of the following contributes to the overall genetic diversity present in an organism?
An independent assortment of chromosomes,genetic recombination, mutation,random fertilization of egg cells by sperm cells.All of the processes listed contribute to the genetic variability that exists within a sexually reproducing species such as humans.
The most important characteristic that distinguishes meiosis from mitosis is?
the total number of chromosomes present in daughter cells. Recall that the overall purpose of mitosis is to make genetically identical daughter cells (diploid parent cell to diploid daughter cells), whereas the purpose of meiosis is to reduce the number of chromosomes by half (diploid parent cell to haploid daughter cells).
The second division of meiosis is essentially?
Mitosis that begins with two haploid cells and ends with four haploid cells. The purpose of meiosis II is to separate the attached duplicated sister chromatids present in the haploid cells following meiosis I. This is essentially what mitosis does, only with diploid cells instead of haploid.
The key feature of metaphase in mitosis is that?
individual chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell.
Which of the following statements regarding cancer risk is true?
Environmental factors pose the greatest cancer risk. As demonstrated by the Scandinavian twin study, the most significant factor for cancer risk was the environment.
Why is it more common for a person beyond middle age to have an increased risk for cancer?
Stem cells are found in both embryos and adults, but have the opportunity to differentiate differently. Why do cancer patients going through chemotherapy and radiation have side effects such as hair loss and extreme fatigue?
Stem cells are not given the opportunity to grow and develop during these treatments
The body is using all of the supplied energy to help develop more cells because treatments kill all developing or dividing cells
Chemotherapy interferes with the cell division process.
Depending on the cancer, radiation and chemotherapy are not always localized and thus may affect all cells in the body.
Which of the following represent current medical approaches to treating patients with cancer?
Using genetically engineered viruses that target and destroy cancer cells.
Using drugs to disable proteins that allow cancer cells to divide indefinitely.
Using drugs to block the growth of blood vessels in cancerous tissues.
Surgical removal of tumor masses.
Smoking has been linked to which of the following cancers?
Lung, Bladder, Kidney, and Stomach.
15.) Assuming your blood type is AB, you can donate blood to people with type _________ blood and can receive blood from people with type _________.
A pea plant that is heterozygous for the flower color gene makes gametes. What is the probability that a specific gamete contains the recessive white allele for flower color?
Recall the genetic determination of coat color in mice, as we saw in your textbook. A cross between a male with the genotype BBcc and a female with the genotype bbcc will produce offspring with which coat color(s)?
Theoretically, a Siamese cat raised from birth in a very cold environment should have?
Which of the following statements about mutations is false?
Organisms are able to create mutations to meet their specific needs.
Autosomal dominant diseases are exhibited by anyone who carries at least one dominant allele for that gene. How is it that dominant lethal genes, such as the one that causes Huntington's disease, can persist in a population?
These diseases usually take effect later in life after people have
Sickle-cell anemia is an inherited chronic blood disease caused by an autosomal recessive allele. Suppose a man who is homozygous recessive for the sickle-cell gene fathers a child by a woman who is a carrier for sickle-cell. What are the chances their children will exhibit the disease?
Down syndrome in humans is an example of?
A change in the overall number of chromosomes.
Consider the pedigree for a family with brachydactyly, shown in Figure 13.9. On what basis can we conclude that the allele that causes this condition is likely dominant?
None of the affected individuals have unaffected parents.
If two parents are heterozygous for an autosomal recessive disease they are both what?
They are both considered genetic carriers for the disease.
Even though you and your brothers or sisters are all humans, odds are that each of you has a somewhat different genetic makeup. The molecular basis for this inherited genetic variation?
is related to the difference in the DNA nucleotide sequence of your genes.
During the first half of the twentieth century, as geneticists began the search for what genes are made of, they knew that the hereditary material
all of the above.
Which of the following parts of a DNA molecule are held together by hydrogen bonds?
nucleotide bases on opposite strands of the double helix.
Before damaged DNA can be repaired, which of the following must occur?
all of the above.
The combined length of all of the DNA present in a single cell of your body is approximately
A certain enzyme is known to be responsible for separating the two strands of a DNA molecule to facilitate the process of DNA replication. This enzyme most likely
breaks hydrogen bonds between bases.
Consider the three-dimensional structure of DNA. Which of the following has a structure analogous to a molecule of DNA?
Assume a cell present in your body has performed a mismatch error during the process of DNA replication. This error has resulted in the generation of a new allele for one of your genes. For this new allele to be inherited by your offspring, which of the following conditions must be true?
The error must occur in the germ line cells responsible for the production of gametes.
In which of the following cells from a human would you expect to find the genes that code for both insulin and rRNA expressed at the same time?
For the information contained in a gene to be used to produce a functioning protein,
information must be transcribed into mRNA and then translated into amino acids.
A small segment of DNA on the template strand contains the base sequence CGT. If an mRNA transcript is made that includes this sequence, what would be the anticodon on the tRNA that would bind to this corresponding mRNA sequence?
Refer to Figure 15.10. If the original triplet DNA codon CTC
had mutated into CTT instead of CAC as shown, what would
have been the consequence for the hemoglobin formed from
this alternative mutation?
normal hemoglobin would have been made.
The process of gene transcription begins with the
binding of RNA polymerase to a region of DNA called the "promoter"
A murder has occurred, and you are asked to help solve it. The police bring you a sample from the crime scene of what they believe is the killer's DNA and ask you for a chemical analysis. Your study of this sample reveals the presence of adenine, thymine, ribose, and uracil, leading you to conclude that the sample is
probably a mixture of DNA and RNA.
In human gene therapy, doctors
seek to correct genetic disorders by repairing the genes that cause them.
In a criminal trial in which DNA fingerprinting has been used, a genetic "match" between the suspect and evidence left at the crime scene provides
a high probability that the suspect is guilty
A sample of DNA from a person suspected of having sickle-cell anemia is subjected to DNA hybridization using two probes—one that binds to the normal allele and another that binds to the sickle-cell allele. If both probes bind to the DNA, this individual
is heterozygous for the sickle-cell gene
Genetically engineered bovine growth hormone (BGH), which is highly effective for improving overall growth and milk production in cattle, remains a hotly debated issue because
BGH could drive traditional family farmers out of business
Which of the following would be considered a concern for critics of genetic engineering?
everything in the list
The primary reason why the same basic techniques can be used to analyze the DNA from species as diverse as bacteria and humans is that?
DNA has a consistent structure in all organisms.
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