HHSENG3AP - Rhetorical Terms List 1
Advanced Placement Terms - Language & Composition
Terms in this set (20)
in an argument, this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas. It comes from the Latin meaning "against the man."
assuming that the widespread occurence of something makes it a good idea
the rhetorical strategy of extending a metaphor through an entire narrative so that objects, persons, and actions in the text are equated with meanings that lie outside the text.
the repetition of the same consonant sound, especially at the beginning of words. For example, "Five miles meandering with a mazy motion" Kubla Khan by S.T. Coleridge
a brief reference to a person, event, or place, real or fiction, or to a work of art (ex. The Grapes of Wrath ---> Revelation 14:19-20)
compares two things, which are alike in several respects, for the purpose of explaining or clarifying some unfamiliar or difficult idea or object by showing how the idea or object is similar to some familiar one. While simile often overlaps with this term, the simile is generally a more artistic likening, done briefly for effect and emphasis, whilethis serves the more practical end of explaining a thought process or a line of reasoning or the abstract in terms of the concrete, and may therefore be more extended
repetition of the same word or words at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences. "...not as a call to bear arms...not as a call to battle..." --JF Kennedy
a story or brief episode told by the writer or a character to illustrate to a point.
(n.) a critical or explanatory note or comment, especially for a literary work; taking notes directly on a text
repetition of words in an inverted order to sharpen a contrast. ex. "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country." JF Kennedy
the juxtaposition of contrasting words or ideas to give a feeling of balance. "It was the best of times, it was the worst of times." Charles Dickens
a figure of speech that directly addresses an absent or imaginary person or personified abstraction, such as liberty or love. The effect may add familiarity or emotional intensity. William Wordsworth addresses John Milton as he writes, "Milton, thou shouldst be living at this hour: England hath need of thee."
appeal to false authority
as evidence to support a claim, information from a named authority is used outside of the individual's area of expertise, and thus the evidence is not necessarily credible. The authority can be misquoted by editing comments out of context or combining several quotes to fit the justification of the argument. Or the "expert" may not be an expert at all. Sometimes there is a vague association between the authority and the topic in question, which is exploited to establish a perceived legitimacy.
old-fashioned or outdated language ex. "Thou hast delivered mine enemy into my hands."
a process of reasoned inquiry; a persuasive discourse moving from a claim to a conclusion.
an emphatic statement; declaration. An assertion supported by evidence becomes an argument
repetition of words without repetition of consonants, things that sound the same but don't rhyme--> as in cry and side
lack of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses or words
one's listener or readership; those to whom a speech or piece of writing is addressed; most texts have multiple audiences -- both direct and indirect
departure from normal word order for the sake of emphasis. (e.g. Glistens the dew on the morning grass.) transposition of normal word order; most often found in Latin in the case of prepositions and the words they control. (a form of hyperbaton)