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speech final exam
Terms in this set (111)
facial expressions, gestures, sounds of agreement/disagreement
some different types of feedback you might recieve as a public speaker
an interactive and dynamic process
is there a positive side to communication anxiety
can "psych" you up for your presentation; it will also help you to care about your audience and message
selective relaxation, attitude adjustment, visualization, and skills training
good ways to reduce the discomfort of communication anxiety
components= competence, integrity, goodwill, and dynamism
what determines ethos
type of listening that is explained by using the Chinese symbol for the verb "to listen"
discriminative, comprehensive, empathic, appreciative, critical, and constructive
the 6 types of listening
helps reduce anticipatory anxiety
helps you focus on your message
changes negative self-messages into positive ones
implants a positive picture of success in your mind
makes you more competent and more confident as a speaker
phase of listening in which we detect sounds of spoken communication; is involuntary; ex: if people are being noisy, this type of listening is hard to practice
phase of listening in which we focus on, understand, and interpret spoken messages; is voluntary; ex: hearing your name called
phase of listening in which we suspend judgment, allow speakers to be heard, and try to see things from their points of view; informal, interpersonal; ex: try to see things from the speakers' perspective
phase of listening in which we enjoy the beauty of messages, responding to such factors as the simplicity, balance, and the eloquence of language;ex: ceremonial speaking
listening with careful analysis and evaluation of message content; ex:public speaking
search for the value that messages may have for your life, despite their defects; ex: a speech urging importance
observable characteristics of listeners: age, gender, educational level, and group affiliations
ex: occupational, political, religions, social, sociocultural background
feelings developed towards specific kinds of subjects; ex: likes/dislikes
what we know/think we know about subjects; ex:statements
moral principles that suggest how we should behave or what we see as an ideal state of being; ex: something is wrong or right
time,place,occassion,size of audience, and context
situtional factors in audience analysis
expresses what you want to accomplish
summarizes what you intend to say
late in the interview after you have established rapport
when is the best time to ask controversial questions in an interview
rules to remember when using statistics in your speech
check sources to verify info, use info from sources with no vested interest in what they report, don't distort meaning of info, use the latest facts and figures, and make the more understandable with examples or presentation aids
word prictures that help listeners visualize what you are talking about
discussion that helps clarify topic or demonstrates how a process works
translation of an unfamiliar word into understandable terms
verbal illustratiosn of the speaker's points
categorial, comparative, spatial, sequential, chronological, causation, problem-solution, refutative, and narrative
different organizational patterns
develops a subject according to its natural or customary divisions;ex: physical space, tour
chronological; causation pattern
ex: often used for forecasting future events
problem-solution; refutative pattern
ex:for or against an issue by refutiating opposing arguments
structures your speech by developing a story from beginning to end. ex: prologue to plot to epilogue
attention grabber, established ethos, and preview of message
what makes a good introduction?
what makes a good conclusion
summarize message, concluding remarks (echo intro, restate relevance, call for action, ask rhetorical questions, and with a story, close with a quotation, end with a metaphor, strategic reception)
after the speech is over
when is the best time in a speech to distribute hand-outs?
line, bar, pie, flow chart
what are the different types of graphs?
graph that shows the size of the subject's parts in relation to one another and to the whole
graph that shows comparisons and contrasts between two or more items or groups
graph that demonstrates changes across time, and it is useful for showing trends in growth or decline
chart that can show the steps in a process, the hierarchy and accountability in an organization, or the genealogy of a family tree
more spontaneous and less formal, more colorful and intense, more interactive, engaging listeners in the feelings and thoughts of the speech as they develop, and it offers special contraints as well as opportunities
the manner in which individual speech sounds are produced
the manner in which individual words are articulated and pronounced in context
the use of correct sounds and proper stress on syllables when saying words
a speech pattern associated with an area of the country or with a cultural or ethnic background
4 methods of delivering a speech
impromptu speaking, memorized text presentation, manuscript presentation, and extemporaneous presentation
a talk delivered with minimal or no preparation
memorized text presentation
speeches that are committed to memory and delivered word for word
a speech read from a manuscript
a form of presentation in which a speech, although carefully prepared and practiced, is not written out or memorized
gives to listeners rather than asks of them; reveal options;offer supporting material to illustrate points;
asks of listeners, rather than gives to them; urge a choice among options;use supporting material as evidence that justifies advice;asks for lots of audience commitment; leadership is important; appeals to feelings are useful
a form of proof that makes rational appeals based on facts and figures and expert testimony
proof relying on appeals to emotions
a form of proof that relies on the audiences perceptions of a speaker's competence, integrity, goodwill, and dynamism
4th aristotle proof; form of proof that connects a subject to the culture and tradition of a group of narratives
arguing from a general principle to a specific case
reasoning from specific factual instances to reach a general conclusion
creating a strategic perspective on a subject by relating it to something similar about which the audience has strong feelings
error in reasoning that makes persuasion unreliable
ex:may crop up in the evidence you use, the proofs you develop, or the reasoning in your arguments
interferes and distorts the message
allows a speaker to make on-the-spot adjustments during a speech
only important when there is a problem such as bad acoustics or a broken microphone during a presentation
includes the importance of establishing yourself as a credible person
quoting out of context
if a speaker were to give a speech that quoted the phrase from the declaration of independence "all men are created equal", as an argument for a male dominated society, the speaker would be guilty of the practice known as:
specific fear that is related to recieving a bad grade on the speech
type of situation other than face-to-face are people most comfortable with?
act confident even if you don't feel that way
what should you do when you rise to speak
not a component of ethos
your audience's impression of you when you speak
what determines what aristotle called "Ethos"
we spend most of our communication time doing this:
if your friend calls you to tell you he was starting a blog for sad people, and oh yeah, " my girlfreind dumped me tuesday", and asks if you have some time and he tells you a very sad story about the break-up, you would probably be doing what kind of listening?
if you are working on this exam with a classmate and she suddenly starts talking about how cool lady gaga is and you dont interrupt(even though you hate lady gaga) and because of this you get a better understanding and perhaps an appreciation of lady gaga, you would probably be doing what kind of listening?
if while sitting in class, your humble speech professor walks to the board and begins to describe and explain another speech project and as he does, you take notes and listen to his voice and focus on understanding the assignment, then you would probably be doing what kind of listening?
your friend has a new dog that she claims can talk and she asks you to listen to the pooch's answer when she asks the dog "what makes lady gaga so awesome?" as you listen and try to determine if the dog is actually speaking english or just making dog noises, you would probably be doing what kind of listening?
never a big fan of the opera, clark kent goes to a performance of mozart's the magic flute because he wants some face time with louis and while he is there he finds himself teary-eyed because of the beauty of the music and language combining in such interesting and satisgying ways and it is then that clark kent realizes he would go back to the opera with or without lous. clark kent is doing what kind of listening?
your roomate asks to borrow your car again, and she tearfully explains that her grandma is sick and she needs to take her some medicine. thinking of your own grandma, you are ready to toss the keys to her and then you remember that your roommate told you when you first met that she was an orpgan who was raised by nuns until she was 18 and that she didn't have any blood relatives still living. As you quickly think of a handy excuse to not lend her your car, you realize you probably did what kind of listening?
the most troublesome barriers to effective listening are grounded where?
words that set off powerful emotional reacitons that derail your understanding and forestall critical listening
type of evidence that are assumptions based on incomplete info
if you tell your roommate, "please do not use my toothbrush because it is wrong" you are stating what kidn of audience dynamic?
if you put on your face book page that you like the song "mmmbop" by hanson, you are stating what kind of audience dynamic
when the beatles sang: love,love,love, there's nothing you can do that can't be done. nothing you can sing that can't be sung. nothing you can say but you can learn how to play the game. it's easy, they were stating what kind of audience dynamic?
if you bang on your dorm room wall and yell " turn down that awful lady gaga music it's giving me a headache" you are stating what kind of audience dynamic?
what do speakers normally not try to change in an audience?
if you were asked to give a speech about where the fire exits were in your dorm to the dorm population, which general purpose would you probably select?
if you were asked to give a speech about why the zero tolerance policy for alcohol and drugs in the dorms is a good thing, which general purpose would you probably select?
if you were asked to give a speech about why you should support the various activities around like Titan sports and the UDM plays, which general purpose would you probably select?
if you were asked to give an after-dinner speech about what makes UDM a terrific school which general purpose would you probably select?
reference or research librarian
the most valuable resource in the library
things to do when using statistics
round off numbers, use presentation aids to display your data, use comparison and contrast, use precise figures to make numbers more credible
translates unfamiliar or technical terms into words your listeners can understand
if you were planning to give a friend a tour of the UDM campus, which type of organizational design would you probably use/
if you were going to demonstrate to one of your classmates the best method for completing a take-home speech exam, which type of organizational design would you probably use?
if you asked by the school to give a presentation about the history of the UDM campus, which type of organization design would you probably use?
showing your presentational aid
which is NOT part of a good intro?
type of outline that you should put on your 3 x 5 cards to present from
possibly the most frequently misused type of presentation aid
these increase understanding, make a speech more memorable, enhance a speaker's credibility, can distract listeners, and can damage your credibility
if you wanted to show the difference between major wildfires per decades over 6 or 7 decades, what graph or chart would you probably use?
if you were to do your demonstration speech again, which graph or chart would you probably use to increase understanding the process you were demonstrating?
if you gave a speech about time management and wanted to show how a successful student allocates her or his time, which graph or chart would you probably us?
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