66 terms

Pschology emotions, motivation, and personality

After spending years in the ocean, a mature salmon swims up its home river to return to its birthplace. This behavior is an example of
In an attempt to lose some of the weight she has gained from binge eating, Melissa tries to compensate by using laxatives and exercising until she is exhausted. Melissa most clearly demonstrates symptoms of:
bulimia nervosa
Over the past 50 years, the incidence of anorexia nervosa has steadily increased. This is most clearly attributable to:
cultural ideals of beauty that increasingly encourage thinness.
Some students work hard in school in order to receive high grades. This best illustrates the importance of:
A Columbia University study found that teens who took vows pledging virginity until marriage were subsequently:
less likely than other adolescents to use contraceptives if they did have intercourse before marriage.
During which phase of the sexual response cycle does the refractory period begin
the resolution phase
Which of the following is not true with respect to sexual orientation?
With the help of a therapist, most people find it easy to change their sexual orientation.
According to Maslow, our need for ________ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ________.
adequate clothing; self-esteem
For a thirsty person, drinking water serves to reduce:
a drive
Homeostasis refers to:
he body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state.
Bryce often acts so daring and overly confident that few people realize he is actually riddled with unconscious insecurity and self-doubt. Bryce best illustrates the use of a defense mechanism known as:
reaction formation.
According to Abraham Maslow, people are highly motivated to achieve self-actualization ________ they become concerned with their personal safety and ________ they become concerned with achieving self-esteem.
after; after
According to Freud, fixation refers to a difficulty in the process of:
psychosexual development.
Bonnie is afraid to express anger at her overbearing and irritating supervisor at work, so she is critical of her children instead. A psychoanalyst would suggest that Bonnie's reaction to her children illustrates:
Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of:
dream interpretation.
Albert Bandura's social-cognitive perspective highlights the importance of:
reciprocal determinism
person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension known as:
Characteristic patterns of behavior and motivation are called
According to Freud, the unconscious is:
the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are unaware.
According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the:
Four-year-old Timmy has not wet his bed for over a year. However, he starts bed-wetting again soon after his sister is born. Timmy's behavior best illustrates:
Reaction formation refers to the process by which people:
consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses.
According to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the:
ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized.
Freud referred to a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage as:
theories of emotion
emotions are a mix of 1 physioclogical activation 2 expressive behaviors and 3 concious experience.
controversies of interplay os phsiology expressions and thoughts in emotions
does our pysiological arousal precede or follow our emotional espericence?

does cognition always precede emotion?
james-lange theory
that physiological repsponses comes first folowed by the emotion
cannon-bard theory
emotion triggering stimulus and the body;s arousal take place simultaneously
schacter's cognitive theory
two-factor theor- emotions have two ingerdients. physical arousal and vognitive label.
arousal and performance
performance peaks at lower levels of arousal for difficult tasks, and at higher levels for easy or well learned tasks.
subjective well-being
self percieved happiness or satisfaction with life.
predictors of happiness
-high selfesteem
-opotimistic, outgoing, and agreeable.
-have close friendships of a satisfying marriage
-have work and leisure that engage thair skills
-have a meaningful religious faith
-sleep well and exersize
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
maslows hierarchy of needs
maslows heierarchy of needs stars at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
self-actualication needs
need to live up to on'es fullest and unique potential
esteem needs
need for self esteem achievment competence and independence need for recognition and respect from others
belongingness and love needs
need to love nad be loved to belong and be accepted need to avoid loneliness and alienation
safety needs
need to feel that the world is organized and predictable need to feel safe, secure, and stable
physiological needs
need to satisfy hunger and thirst
sexual response cycle
excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
efects of porn of women and men
women experience heightened srousal under controlled conditions
men become sexually aroused why veiwing erotic material
refractory period
a resting period after orgasm during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
predictors of homosexuality
levay found that the brain anatomy influences sexual orientation
freud's personality theory
the unconscious is reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts wishes feelings and memories
unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and agressive drives, operatinf on the pleasure principle demanding immediate gratification
the conscienece provides standars for judgement and future aspisrations internalized from others, what we ought to be produces guilt and pride
the executive the demands of the id and superego by working on the reality priciple
a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage in which conflicts were unresolved
reaction formation
psychoanalytical defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously swtiches unacceptable impulses into their oppoistes. thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings
psychanalytic defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
defense mechanism that offers self justifying explanations in place of the real, more threateing, unconscious reasons for one's actions
banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person. redirecting anger towards a safer outlet
when someone is faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage
projective test
a personality test such as the rorschach or TAT that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Jung's collective unconcious
a common reservoir of images derived from our species past. this is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother being a symbol of nuturance
the big five
Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, neuroticism, openess, extraversion.
organized, careful, disciplined VS. disorganized, careless, impulsive
sofer-hearted, trustng, helpful VS. ruthless, suspicious, uncooperative
calm, secure, self-satisfied VS. anxious, insecure, self-pitying
imaginative, preference for variety, independent VS. practical preference for routine, conforming
sociable, fun-loving, affectionate VS. retiring, sober, reserved
social cognitive perspective
bandura believes that personality is the result of an interaction between a persona dn their social context
reciprocal determinism
different people choose different enviorments
our personalities shape how we react to events
our personalities shape situations.
bottom up processing
analysis that begins with the sensory resptiors and works up to the brain's intergration of sensory information
top down processing
information processing guided by higher lever mental proesses as when we construct perceptions drawing on out experience and expectations