Colonization chapters 2 & 3
Terms in this set (53)
A strait that separates Alaska from Asia. In ancient times there was a land bridge between the two that made crossing possible before advanced sea technology.
Another sophisticated Central American/Mexican society. They had a written language, an advanced number system, an accurate calendar, and an advanced agricultural system.
Came after the Mayans. Established rule in late 1200's. Had elaborate administrative, educational, and medical systems comparable to the most advanced in Europe at the time. Had a harsh religion with human sacrifice, which was one of the reasons early European settlers saw them as savages.
Hunter-gatherer tribes. They had small populations because their location often changed. Not as warlike or good at agriculture as the civilizations in the south. Tribes mainly linked by language or familial ties.
A system of rankings in which land was owned by people of higher status and worked on by serfs. The monarch was at the top of the system while the peasants at the bottom.
An epidemic of the Bubonic plague that began in Constantinople in 1347 that decimated the population of Europe. It killed almost a third of the continents population and decimated the economy. Some land was left vacant because of the lack of people to employ.
Ferdinand and Isabella
The King and Queen of Spain and the most powerful Monarchy in Europe at the time. They were eager to sponsor new commercial ventures. Isabella funded Columbus' trip to the New World, although it was in hopes of finding a western route to Asia.
Spanish explorers stopped seeing the New World as a boundary and instead saw it as a possible source of wealth. Early Spanish explorers tried to enslave the Natives and find gold.
Led a military expedition against the Aztecs in 1518. He would have lost but smallpox decimated the Aztecs allowing Cortes to win and gain his reputation as the most brutal Conquistador.
Revealed the wealth of the Incas to the Europeans by conquering Peru between 1532-1538. He opened the way for other expeditions to South America.
Licenses from the crown that permitted explorers to exact labor and tribute from the natives. They were not actual land grants but they gained control of land through the rights that the encomiendas gave them.
Fort established in 1565 that became the first permanent European settlement in the present-day US. Little more than a small military outpost for a number of unsuccessful campaigns against North American natives.
A revolt in 1680 that nearly destroyed the colony. It was in response to a Spanish attempt to put an end to their religion and convert them to Catholicism. Spanish returned 12 years later and ended the last revolt in 1696. Made Spanish realize that they could not prosper in New Mexico.
idea that colonies were there for the benefit of England
Began in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther challenged the beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church. He said that The Bible, not the church, was the real voice of god. He said salvation was not found through good deeds but through faith alone. He gained many followers and was excommunicated in 1520. People also began to follow Calvin who said that destiny was determined before birth and an individual could only strive to know his/her fate.
Began with a dispute between the Pope and the King in 1529 because the King wanted to divorce his Spanish wife because she had failed to bear him a son. He broke England's ties with the Catholic Church and became the head of the Christian faith in England. He made very few changes. When his daughter ascended to the throne she quickly restored England's allegiance to Rome and harshly persecuted those who refused to return. When her half sister Elizabeth ascended to the throne in 1558 she once again severed ties
Exiles who had fled Mary and returned under Elizabeth. They brought radical ideas with them and sought to "purify" the church. Puritans who took very radical stances were known as Separatists. They deified English law, which prohibited all unauthorized religious meetings. The Quakers were the most prominent Separatist sect.
Invaded England in 1588. One of the largest known military fleets ever. They were defeated in the English Channel by a small English fleet and it reversed the Spanish domination of the sea.
The London Company
Charter was issued to them by James I in 1606. Sent 144 men on three ships in an expedition to Virginia.
Colony established near James River. Bad location because river was too salty, there was malaria in the marshes and they were close to very strong Native tribes.
Came to Jamestown in 1608 and became leader of the colony. He imposed work and order and organized raids against the natives. In his first winter on 38 out of 200 people died. He had to return to England in 1609 to seek treatment for a serious powder burn.
Winter of 1609-1610. The local Natives were angry and they starting killing livestock in the woods and kept the colonists barricaded in. The colonists ate dogs, cats, rats, toadstools and even humans. Only 60 of 500 colonists were left alive.
A crop discovered in the new world. It was very popular in Spain and became the main export of Jamestown. The downside was that it used land very quickly.
Headright System (Virginia and Maryland)
New settlers received 50 acres of land per person they brought withy them. Established settlers received 100 acres. In Maryland it was 100 acres for the first person and 50 for every extra person.
People who could not afford the passage to the New World, so someone else paid for their journey and was paid back with a set term of labor.
House of Burgesses
A meeting of delegates from various communities in Jamestown. The first example of an elected legislature in America.
In 1619 a Dutch ship brought "20 and odd Negroes" to the New World. The blacks were not originally slaves but slowly became more used until slavery was common.
The Indians who bordered Virginia. Sir Thomas Dale led many attacks on them and stole Pocahontas, the chief's daughter. They were at first submissive to the white settlers however Powhatan's heir, Opechancanough killed over 340 settlers.
Bacon's Rebellion (causes, results, significance)
A rebellion of the Backcountry led by Nathaniel Bacon because the Governor refused to help them when the Natives attacked them.
Leader of the Puritan "pilgrims". Was chosen multiple times to be their governor.
a document that established a civil government and proclaimed the pilgrims allegiance to the king
One of the Puritan's most important Indian friends. He spoke English due to an earlier capturing and helped the settlers develop good relations with the other Natives.
"City Upon a Hill"
The belief that the city should be founded as a holy commonwealth that could serve as an example to the rest of the world.
A society with no line between church and state.
A separatist who argued that the Massachusetts church should cut all ties with the Church of England. Also called for a complete separation of church and state. Established Rhode Island, the first colony to allow complete religious freedom including Jews.
Came to Boston in 1634. Thought that only the "elect" were entitled to religious or political authority. She developed a large following especially among women. She was influential in Winthrop's not being re-elected in 1636. Claimed to have communicated directly with the Holy Spirit. Died in an Indian uprising in 1643.
English settlers allied with the Mohegan and Narragansett Indians to fight the Pequots. Pequot tribe almost wiped out.
King Philip's War
A conflict in 1675 between the English and the Wampanoags led by "King Phillip". Terrorized Massachusetts towns for three years. English formed an alliance with the Mohawks and eventually crushed the uprising.
English Civil War (including monarchs involved)
Charles I dissolved parliament is 1629 and became an absolute monarch. In 1642 the Roundheads, the mostly Puritan forces of Parliament, fought the Kings forces, the Cavaliers, and won in 1649. .
Colony modeled on Maryland rather than on Virginia or Massachusetts. Showed a change from private colonies wanting immediate wealth to permanent settlements.
colony over which the king of England controlled with royal charter. Had a royal governor to make sure laws were carried out and had an elected legislature
Society of Friends
A group of Quakers in America. Led by George Fox and Margaret Fell. Rejected predestination and gave women equal power in the church. They refused to fight in wars.
By far the Caribbean's most lucrative export. Could be used for sugar or rum. Farmers cleared ridiculous amounts of land to grow sugar cane. It was a very labor-intensive crop so English planters had to import laborers. The slaves soon outnumbered the whites.
Whites grew fearful of the slaves who could soon outnumber them. They imposed strict regulations to maintain control and treated the slaves terribly.
The journey between Africa and America during which the slaves were kept in horrible conditions that led to high death rates.
Laws passes by colonial assemblies in the 1700's that took away the little power that black people had and gave complete power to white slave owners.
Navigation Acts (years and provisions)
1660- close colonies to all trade except that carried in English ships. Required colonists to export certain items like tobacco only to England.
1663- all goods coming from Europe to the colonies had to pass through Europe along the way (so England could tax them).
1673- imposed duties on the coastal trade among the English colonies and appointed customs officials to enforce the Navigation Acts.
Dominion of New England
Charles revoked the Massachusetts corporate charter and made it a royal colony. When James came to the throne he created a Dominion of New England that combined Massachusetts with the rest of New England and later even contained New York and New Jersey.
Trade between the Indies, Africa, America, and England. America and Indies exported raw materials, Africa exported slaves, and England exported processed goods
A search for witches. Supposed to be based on actual belief of satanic affiliations but often was a way to relieve social strains because it was so easy to convict someone.
A movement that stressed the importance of science and human reason. Suggested that people had substantial control over their own lives and the course of their societies, and that the world could be explained rationally and scientifically.
A new trend of religious fervor that sprung up in America in the 1730's and reversed the previous trend.
John Peter Zenger
Tried in 1734 for a printed attack on a public official. Was defended by Andrew Hamilton and won the case. This made it so that slander could be printed if it was true.