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chapter 26 notecards
Terms in this set (37)
The study of evolutionary relationships among organisms
a discipline focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships
practice of classifying plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships
The two-part latinized name of a species, consisting of genus and specific epithet.
a taxonomic category above the kingdom level; the three domains of life are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
a classification grouping that contains similar, closely related organisms
In classification, the taxonomic category above order.
Group or level of organization into which organisms are classified
(biology) a taxonomic group containing one or more genera
the second largest taxonomic category in the animal kingdom
a family tree that shows the evolutionary relationships thought to exist among groups of organisms
System of classification of organisms based on evolutionary relationships: Only groups that include a common ancestor and all of its descendents are named.
a branch point from which more than two descendant groups emerge
The representation on a phylogenetic tree of the divergence of two or more taxa from a common ancestor
analogous structures that have evolved independently
a phylogenetic classification system that uses shared derived characters and ancestry as the sole criterion for grouping taxa
Groups of organisms that share an immediate common ancestor and hence are each other's closest relatives.
A scientific discipline that uses nucleic acids or other molecules in different species to infer evolutionary relationships.
a branch point within hte tree represents the last common ancestor of all taxa in the tree
a group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants
Pertaining to a taxon derived from a single ancestral species that gave rise to no species in any other taxa.
pertaining to a grouping of species that consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all, of its descendants.
pertaining to a group of taxa derived from two or more different ancestors
shared ancestral character
a character that originated in an ancestor of the taxon
shared derived character
an evolutionary novelty unique to a particular clade
A species or group of species that is closely related to the group of species being studied, but clearly not as closely related as any study-group members are to each other.
In a cladistic study of evolutionary relationships among taxa of organisms, the group of taxa that is actually being analyzed.
A principle that states that when considering multiple explanations for an observation, one should first investigate the simplest explanation that is consistent with the facts.
this principle states that, given certain rules abotu how DNA changes over time, a tree can be found that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events
an approach in which features shared by two groups of organisms are predicted (by parsimony) to be present in their common ancestor and all of its descendants
homologous genes that are found in different species because of speciation
homologous genes that are found in the same genome due to gene duplication
a yardstick for measuring the absolute time of evolutionary change based on the observation that some genes and other regions of genomes appear to evolve at constant rates
the hypothesis that much evolutionary change in genes and proteins has no effect on fitness and therefore is not influenced by Darwinian natural selection
horizontal gene transfer
The transfer of genes from one genome to another through mechanisms such as transposable elements, plasmid exchange, viral activity, and perhaps fusions of different organisms.
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