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49 terms

Digestive System

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Mucosa
wall of the digestive tract inner layer; absorption of nutrients
Submucosa
connective tissue layer containing blood vessels and nerves in the wll of the digestive tract.
Muscularis
two layers of muscle surrounding the digestive tube that produce wavelike, rhythmic contractions
Serosa
outermost covering of the digestive tract; composed of the parietal pleura in the abdominal cavity;Visceral peritonueum.
Crown
visible part (enamel)
Neck
narrow portion surrounded by gingiva.
Root
fits into socket in jaw.
Salivary Glands
secrete amylase; enzyme for carbohydrate digestion.
Parotid Gland
largest salivary gland.
Submandibular Gland
salivary glands that drain saliva into the mouth on either side of the lingual frenuleum.
Sublingual Glands
salivary glands that drain saliva into the floor of the mouth.
Pharynx
area behind nasal cavities and mouth; participated in digestion and respiration; commonly called the throat.
Esophagus
the muscular, mucus-lined tube that connects the pharynx with the stomach; also known as the foodpipe.
Chyme
partially digested food mixture leaving the stomach.
Fundus
upper portion above GE opening.
Body
center of stomach.
Pylorus
lower narrow section; joins small intestine.
Pyloric sphincter
separates pylorus/duodenum; prevents food from leaving the stomach and entering the duodenum.
Small Intestine
20 feet long; duodenum, jejunum, Ileum; has multiple folds in wall and fingers called villi.
Plica
multiple circular folds.
Villi
fingerlike folds covering the plicae of the small intestines.
Duodenum
the first subdivision of the small intestine where most chemical digestion occurs.
Jejunum
the middle third of the small intestine.
Ileum
the distal portion of the small intestine.
Liver
largest gland in the body; classified as exocrine gland.
Gallbladder
pouch on underside of liver; concentrates and stores liver bile.
Pancreas
endocrine gland located in the abdominal cavity; contains pancratic islets that secrete glucagon and insulin; digest fats, proteins and carbohdrates.
Bile
substance that reduces large fat globules into smaller droplets of fat that are more easily broken down.
Large Intestine
terminal portion of digestive tract; primary function is absorbtion of water and salts.
Ileocecal Valve
the sphincter-like structure between the end of the small intestine and the beginning of the large intestine.
Cecum
blind pouch; the pouch at the proximal end of the large intestine
Ascending colon
flows upward on right side; large intestine.
Transverse colon
extends across front of abdomen
Descending colon
flows downward on left side; large intestine.
Sigmoid colon
S-shaped segment of the large intestine that teminates in the rectum.
Rectum
distal portion of the large intestine.
Anal canal
terminal portion of the rectum.
Sphincter
ring-shaped muscle.
Appendix
worm shaped; attached to cecum.
Splenic Flexure
point at which the descending colon turns downward on the left side of the abdomen.
Peritoneum
large, moist, slippery sheet of serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and its organs.
Parietal
the walls of an organ or a cavity.
Visceral
serous membrane that covers the surface of organs found in the body.
Mesentry
a large double fold of peritoneal tissue that anchors the loops of the digestive tract to the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity.
Glucose
the end process of carbohydrates; begins in the mouth with salivary amylase,but ends in the small intestine.
Amino Acids
The end process of proteins;starts in the stomach.
Enzymes
amylase,rennin, pepsin; a functional protein acting as a biochemical catalyst allowing chemical reactions to take place in a suitable timeframe.
Fatty Acids
the end process of fat digestion; glycerol (glycerin); occurs mostly in the small intestine; must be emulsified by bile in duodenum.
Absorption
passage of a substance through a membrane, such as skin or mucosa, into blood.