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wall of the digestive tract inner layer; absorption of nutrients


connective tissue layer containing blood vessels and nerves in the wll of the digestive tract.


two layers of muscle surrounding the digestive tube that produce wavelike, rhythmic contractions


outermost covering of the digestive tract; composed of the parietal pleura in the abdominal cavity;Visceral peritonueum.


visible part (enamel)


narrow portion surrounded by gingiva.


fits into socket in jaw.

Salivary Glands

secrete amylase; enzyme for carbohydrate digestion.

Parotid Gland

largest salivary gland.

Submandibular Gland

salivary glands that drain saliva into the mouth on either side of the lingual frenuleum.

Sublingual Glands

salivary glands that drain saliva into the floor of the mouth.


area behind nasal cavities and mouth; participated in digestion and respiration; commonly called the throat.


the muscular, mucus-lined tube that connects the pharynx with the stomach; also known as the foodpipe.


partially digested food mixture leaving the stomach.


upper portion above GE opening.


center of stomach.


lower narrow section; joins small intestine.

Pyloric sphincter

separates pylorus/duodenum; prevents food from leaving the stomach and entering the duodenum.

Small Intestine

20 feet long; duodenum, jejunum, Ileum; has multiple folds in wall and fingers called villi.


multiple circular folds.


fingerlike folds covering the plicae of the small intestines.


the first subdivision of the small intestine where most chemical digestion occurs.


the middle third of the small intestine.


the distal portion of the small intestine.


largest gland in the body; classified as exocrine gland.


pouch on underside of liver; concentrates and stores liver bile.


endocrine gland located in the abdominal cavity; contains pancratic islets that secrete glucagon and insulin; digest fats, proteins and carbohdrates.


substance that reduces large fat globules into smaller droplets of fat that are more easily broken down.

Large Intestine

terminal portion of digestive tract; primary function is absorbtion of water and salts.

Ileocecal Valve

the sphincter-like structure between the end of the small intestine and the beginning of the large intestine.


blind pouch; the pouch at the proximal end of the large intestine

Ascending colon

flows upward on right side; large intestine.

Transverse colon

extends across front of abdomen

Descending colon

flows downward on left side; large intestine.

Sigmoid colon

S-shaped segment of the large intestine that teminates in the rectum.


distal portion of the large intestine.

Anal canal

terminal portion of the rectum.


ring-shaped muscle.


worm shaped; attached to cecum.

Splenic Flexure

point at which the descending colon turns downward on the left side of the abdomen.


large, moist, slippery sheet of serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity and its organs.


the walls of an organ or a cavity.


serous membrane that covers the surface of organs found in the body.


a large double fold of peritoneal tissue that anchors the loops of the digestive tract to the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity.


the end process of carbohydrates; begins in the mouth with salivary amylase,but ends in the small intestine.

Amino Acids

The end process of proteins;starts in the stomach.


amylase,rennin, pepsin; a functional protein acting as a biochemical catalyst allowing chemical reactions to take place in a suitable timeframe.

Fatty Acids

the end process of fat digestion; glycerol (glycerin); occurs mostly in the small intestine; must be emulsified by bile in duodenum.


passage of a substance through a membrane, such as skin or mucosa, into blood.

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