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Consists of the skin, mucous membranes, hair, and nail, largest organ of the human body.
Also called a subcutaneous layer, this is a layer of fat is located under the dermis of the skin; helps to insulate the body and protects underlying muscles and blood vessels.
A pigment that gives the skin, hair and eyes color and helps protect the body from harmful UV radiation that causes skin cancer.
A small tubular cavity in skin containing the root of a hair and is attached to oil glands.
The portion of the living skin on which the nail plate sits.
Dead, colorless tissue attached to the natural nail plate.
The part of the hair located below the surface of the epidermis.
Ist degree burn
the Epidermis has been effected
2nd degree burn
The Dermis has been effected
3rd degree Burn
All three layers have been effected
also called sudoriferous glands, found through the body
in the pubic and underarm areas that secrete a thicker sweat (scent glands-B.O. caused by bacteria breaking down sweat in these)
Most superficial layer of skin. Replaced every 4-6 weeks
Spidery black cells that produce the brown-to-black pigment called melanin.
The product of sebaceous glands. It is a mixture of oily substances and fragmented cells that acts as a lubricant to keep the skin soft and moist.
These glands produce sweat.
Tiny openings on top of skin with sweat and oil glands
Function: Let sweat and oil come out of skin.
cool surface of skin to decrease body temperature
Oil (sebaceous) gland
Made:Fats & protein
Protect body against germs
Prevent hair and skin from drying
Erector Pilli/Arrector Pilli
Muscles attached to hair
Function:makes the hair on a person's arm stand up to keep them warm
Made:Arteries and veins
Function:provide nutrients to the skin and help regulate body temperature
Variety of nerve receptors
Function:Sense change and information about outside environment
Adipose tissue (fat molecule)
Function:Insulate the body from heat and cold
an energy storage area
Function:regulating body temperature
Functions of skin:
The production perspiration by sweat glands help to lower the temperature back to normal.
Skin covers the body and acts as a physical barrier that protects underlying tissue from physical cut, bacterial invasions, dehydration and sunburn.
(sensitivity) The skin contains numerous nerve endings that detect stimuli related to temperature, touch, pressure, and pain.
orange yellow pigment that build up in epidermal cells
mostly in light-skinned individuals
found in carrots and other orange, deep, yello, or leafy green vegetables
true layer; contains blood vessels, nerves, hair follicles
outer layer of skin
bacterial infection of sebaceous glands
third degree burn
involves destruction of epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous layer
The most abundant epidermal cells, they function mainly to produce keratin.
Ducts that empty into hair follicles, excreting oily substances.
A protein that is a main constituent of connective tissue.
A natural pigment that protects the cells in the skin and in deeper layers from the hazardous effects of UV radiation by absorbing sunlight.
Tube like pockets of epidermal cells that extend into the dermis
Small amount of sweat release constantly from sweat glands
PURPOSE of integumentary
-protects deeper tissues
-prevents infection from entering body
-makes Vitamin D from sunlight
-excrete wastes (sweating)
Deepest layer of skin; made of connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves, and muscle
Hypodermis (subcutaneous layer)
Deep to the dermis; not technically part of the skin; made of adipose tissue; helps insulate
cells of the epidermis that produce keratin
melanin producing cells of the epidermis
macrophage like cells found in the epidermis
touch receptors in the epidermis; associated w/sensory neurons that bring the touch signal to the brain
stratum basale (stratum germinativum)
deepest layer of cells in the epidermis; attached to the dermis; contains stem cells that produce new keratinocytes, as well as melanocytes, and Merkel cells;site of mitosus
second deepest layer of cells in the epidermis; made of living keratinocytes; langerhans
third deepest layer of the epidermis; contains keratinocytes filling w/keratin and dying
Found only in thick skin of the palms and soles; contains dead keratinocytes; second most superficial layer of the epidermis
Most superficial layer of the skin; made of dead keratinocytes filled w/keratin; much thicker in thick skin than in thin skin
most superficial layer of dermis; made of areolar connective tissue; includes papillary layer
Made of dense irregular connective tissue; contains collagen and reticular fibers
red pigment in blood; gives light skin its pink color; transports oxygen
Made of hard keratin; grow from nail matrix; provide support for ends of fingers and toes; protect ends of fingers and toes; aid in picking objects up
provides warmth, aids in sensing light touch, protects the scalp from UV rays; grow from base of hair follicle
smooth muscle in the dermis; causes hair to stand on end when it contracts
found everywhere but the palms and soles; produce sebum (oily secretion); lubricate and oil the skin; holocrine glands
eccrine (sudoriferous) sweat glands
true sweat glands; produce watery sweat (true sweat); open through pores onto the skin surface
apocrine sweat glands
found in axillary, anal, and genital regions only; open onto hair follicles; produce sweat w/organic materials that lead to body odor when decomposed by bacteria
modified apocrine glands that produce earwax
modified apocrine glands that produce milk
genetically inherited disorder; body contains melanocytes but makes no melanin; albinos at higher risk for melanoma
autoimmune disorder; immune system attacks and destroys melanocytes
yellowing of the skin due to buildup of bilirubin; indication of liver failure
redness of the skin; multiple causes (bug bites, irritation, sunburn, etc)
blue skin; caused by poor circulation or low oxygen concentration in the blood
First degree burn
epidermis only; no blistering
Second degree burn
epidermis and part of the dermis; blistering
Third degree burn
epidermis and full thickness of dermis; may also involve subcutaneous layer; threat to life due to massive fluid loss and high infection risk
Skin disturbance caused by overactive sebaceous glands plugging hair follicle w/sebum; redness caused by bacteria feeding on sebum
T-cells of the immune system attack healthy skin cells; cells move to surface to quickly, creating thick, scaly patches of skin cells and white blood cells
allergic reaction that causes redness and dry, itchy patches of skin
Basal cell carcinoma
cancer of the cells of the stratum basale; most common type of skin cancer; rarely metastasizes
Squamous cell carcinoma
cancer of the cells of the stratum spinosum; rarely metastasizes
cancer of melanocytes; most deadly form of skin cancer; readily metastasizes
vitamin necessary for proper absorption of calcium in the small intestine
Tough, waterproof protein found in skin, hair, and nails
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