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Aligned with the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for 5th grade science. SCI.5.7A.A I can explore the processes that led to the formation of fossil fuels and sedimentary rocks. SCI.5.7B I can recognize how landforms such as deltas, canyons, and sand dunes are the result of changes to Earth's surface by wind, water, and ice.


The study of the earth.

inner core

The solid, iron-nickel center of the Earth. This is the hottest layer.

outer core

The liquid, iron-nickel outer center of the Earth.


The thick, molten, rocky layer between the crust and the core.


The thin, solid, rocky outer layer of the Earth.

tectonic plate

A large piece of the Earth's crust and upper mantle that slowly moves on top of a boiling mantle.

igneous rock

Rock made when melted rock (magma/lava) cools.

sedimentary rock

A type of rock formed by layers of sediments that were squeezed and stuck together over a long time

metamorphic rock

Rock made from other rocks that change through heat and pressure.

rock cycle

The never ending cycle of rocks changing from one type to another.

constructive force

Force that builds up the earth.

destructive force

Force that takes down the earth.


The breaking up of earth materials into smaller pieces.


Moving sediments by water, wind, or glaciers.


Dropping sediments down in a new location.


Pieces of broken up rock.


A large body of ice that moves slowly, usually downhill


Features of the earth's surface, such as plains, continent, mountain, canyons, hills, plateau, or valley.


Triangular piece of land formed from water depositing sediment at the opening of a river


A deep valley with very steep sides - often carved from the Earth by a river (moving water)

sand dune

Hill or a ridge made of sand. Dunes are shaped by the wind, and change all the time


Low place or land between two mountains


The remains or imprint of a previously living organism.

fossil fuel

Source of energy made from dead plants and animals that have been placed under extreme heat and pressure. Examples include oil, coal, and natural gas.

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