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GEO 122 Exam 1
Terms in this set (30)
Study of the earth
What are the two broadest characterizations of geography?
physical and human
What are a few things that geographers study?
Physical geographers study Earth's seasons, climate, atmosphere, soil, streams, landforms, and oceans
Human geography include urban geography, economic geography, cultural geography, political geography, social geography, and population geography.
What are Earth's 4 major spheres?
Everything in Earth's system can be placed into one of four major subsystems: land, water, living things, or air. These four subsystems are called "spheres." Specifically, they are the "lithosphere" (land), "hydrosphere" (water), "biosphere" (living things), and "atmosphere" (air).
Describe the difference between relative and absolute location?
A relative location is the position of something relative to another landmark. For example, you might say you're 50 miles west of Houston. An absolute location describes a fixed position that never changes, regardless of your current location. It is identified by specific coordinates, such as latitude and longitude.
What are differences between latitude and longitude?
Latitude implies the geographic coordinates that determine the distance of a point, north-south of the equator. Longitude alludes to the geographic coordinate, which identifies the distance of a point, east-west of the Prime Meridian.
What are differences between small scale and large scale maps?
Large scale maps show a smaller amount of area with a greater amount of detail. ... Large scale maps are typically used to show neighborhoods, a localize area, small towns, etc.
Small scale maps show a larger geographic area with few details on them.
What are characteristics of various projections?
5 essential characteristic properties of map projections are subject to distortion: shape, distance, direction, scale, and area. No projection can retain more than one of these properties over a large portion of the Earth
Describe Earth's position in the solar system
Earth is the third planet from the Sun. Closer to the Sun are Mercury and Venus. Further from the Sun are Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The Earth, the Sun, and all the planets are held together by gravity, the same force that pulls you towards the Earth.
Why does the Earth experience seasons?
As the earth spins on its axis, producing night and day, it also moves about the sun in an elliptical (elongated circle) orbit that requires about 365 1/4 days to complete. The earth's spin axis is tilted with respect to its orbital plane. This is what causes the seasons.
How does the tilt and shape of the Earth influence incoming solar radiation?
Earth's Shape Affects its Temperature
Now,tiltthat flashlight to a 45° angle and that same beam of light gets spread over a larger area. ... The Equator getssunlightat a direct right angle, so all thesolarenergy gets concentrated in this area.
What is heat?
energy that is transferred from one body to another as the result of a difference in temperature. If two bodies at different temperatures are brought together, energy is transferred
What are differences between latent and sensible heat?
Latent heat is related to changes in phase between liquids, gases, and solids. Sensible heat is related to changes in temperature of a gas or object with no change in phase.
Describe the 3 different types of heat transfer
Heat is transfered via solid material (conduction), liquids and gases (convection), and electromagnetical waves (radiation). Heat is usually transfered in a combination of these three types and seldomly occurs on its own.
Which does the sun utilize to heat the Earth?
Radiation is the transfer of heat energy through space by electromagnetic radiation. Most of the electromagnetic radiation that comes to the earth from the sun is invisible. Only a small portion comes as visible light. Light is made of waves of different frequencies.
3. Describe how the Earth's atmosphere interacts with incoming solar radiation.
Larger aerosol particles in the atmosphere interact with and absorb some of the radiation, causing the atmosphere to warm. The heat generated by this absorption is emitted as longwave infrared radiation, some of which radiates out into space.
What is albedo?
s a measure of how much light that hits a surface is reflected without being absorbed. Something that appears white reflects most of the light that hits it and has a high albedo, while something that looks dark absorbs most of the light that hits it, indicating a low albedo.
How does albedo impact the heating of the Earth's surface?
The lower the albedo, the more radiation from the Sun that gets absorbed by the planet, and temperatures will rise. If the albedo is higher, and the Earth is more reflective, more of the radiation is returned to space, and the planet cools. An example of this albedo effect is the snow temperature feedback.
What are the different layers of the atmosphere?
These layers are the troposphere, the stratosphere, the mesosphere and the thermosphere. A further region, beginning about 500 km above the Earth's surface, is called the exosphere.
How does temperature change within each layer of the atmosphere?
Different temperature gradients create different layers within the atmosphere.
The troposphere is heated from the ground, so temperature decreases with altitude. Because warm air rises and cool air sinks, the troposphere is unstable.
In the stratosphere, temperature increases with altitude.
Temperatures in the mesosphere decrease with altitude. Because there are few gas molecules in the mesosphere to absorb the Sun's radiation, the heat source is the stratosphere below. The mesosphere is extremely cold, especially at its top, about -90°C
The thermosphere lies between the exosphere and the mesosphere. "Thermo" means heat, and the temperature in this layer can reach up to 4,500 degrees Fahrenheit. hottest layer
What is temperature?
The measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules.
is a physical quantity that expresses hot and cold. It is the manifestation of thermal energy, present in all matter
How temperature different than heat?
The core difference is that heat deals with thermal energy, whereas temperature is more concerned with molecular kinetic energy. ... Heat is the transfer of thermal energy, whereas temperature is a property the object exhibits.
What is the wind chill
The temp of wind speed and air temp combined
What is the heat index
measure of body's perception of how hot it feels
relative humidity added to air temperature
What is temporal lag
that the majority of Earth is covered in water (about 71%), which has a much higher heat capacity than land
Describe the urban heat island effect.
occurs when a city experiences much warmer temperatures than nearby rural areas. The difference in temperature between urban and less-developed rural areas has to do with how well the surfaces in each environment absorb and hold heat.
water distribution on earth
The distribution of water on the Earth's surface is extremely uneven. Only 3% of water on the surface is fresh; the remaining 97% resides in the ocean. Of freshwater, 69% resides in glaciers, 30% underground, and less than 1% is located in lakes, rivers, and swamps.
What are the different parts of the hydrologic cycle?
There are five processes at work in the hydrologic cycle: condensation, precipitation, infiltration, runoff, and evapotranspiration.
What is the difference between maximum, relative, and specific humidity?
Relative humidity, expressed as a percentage, indicates a present state of absolute humidity relative to a maximum humidity given the same temperature. Specific humidity is the ratio of water vapor mass to total moist air parcel mass.
What is the dew point temperature?
the temperature at which saturation occurs
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