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41 terms

Unit O: Urinary System

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ADH
hormone secreted by the posterior pituitary gland, which controls urine
bowman's capsule
double-walled capsule around the glomerulus of nephron
calyces
cup-shaped part of the renal pelvis
collecting tubule
structure in nephron which collects urine from the distal convoluted tubule
cortex
outer part of an organ
distal convoluted tubule
tubular process that ascends to the cortex from the loop of Henle
excretion
removing waste from the body
filtrate
plasmalike fluid filtered from the blood in the glomerulus into the bowman's capsule
filtration
movement of water and particles across a semipermeable membrane by a mechanical force (blood pressure)
glomerulus
tuft of capillaries situated within the bowman's capsule
kidneys
functions to rid the body of nitrogenous wastes
loop of Henle
proximal convoluted tubule descends into the medulla forming the loop of Henle
medulla
inner portion of an organ
nephron
unit structure of kidney
proximal convoluted tubule
twisted tubular branch off the bowman's capsule
pyramids
forms the renal pelvis
reabsorption
useful substances filter out of the renal tubules and back into the capillaries around the tubules
retroperitoneal
located behind the peritoneum
secretion
separating, elaborating, and releasing a substance that fulfills some function within the organism or undergoes excretion
ureters
long narrow tubes from the kidneys to the bladder
urethra
urine goes from bladder to the outside of the body
urinary bladder
used to hold urine
urinary meatus
opening to the urethra
urine
liquid product of the body that is secreted by the kidneys by a process called urination and excreted through the urethra
cystitis
inflammation of the bladder
dialysis (hemodialysis)
used to treat kidney failure
diuretic
makes you go to the bathroom
dysuria
painful urination
enuresis
inability to control the flow of urine and involuntary urination
glycosuria
abnormally high levels of sugar in the urine
hematuria
blood in the urine
incontinence
loss of self-control
kidney transplant
healthy kidney is taken from one person and surgically placed into someone with kidney failure
lithotripsy
shockwaves to break up kidney stones
nephritis
inflammation of the kidney
nocturia
excessive urination during the night
oliguria
little urine
polyuria
excessive urination
pyuria
pus in the urine
renal calculi (kidney stones)
clumping together of calcium phosphate crystals, uric acid, and other substances
urinalysis
chemical analysis of urine