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Freud's psychoanalytic theory
suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior. According to Freud, one's personality has three aspects: ID, Superego, ego
the raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality that is present at birth. Operates according to the pleasure principle, in which the goal is immediate reduction of tension and maximization of satisfaction.
the part of personality that is rational and reasonable. Operates on the reality principle, in which instinctual energy is restrained in order to maintain the safety of the individual and help integrate the person into society.
the aspect of personality that represents a person's conscience, incorporating distinctions between right and wrong. Develops around age 5 or 6 and is acquired through interactions from
-angel right and wrong
Freud's psychosexual stages
series of stages that children pass through in which gratification is obtained through a particular biological function and body part.
(1)Oral (birth to 12-18 months)-most sensitive period, if over indulged children become fixated
(2)Anal (12-18 months to 3 years)-centered around anal region,
(3)Phallic (3 to 5-6 years)-centered around gential region
(4)Latency (5-6 years to adolescence)-nothing interesting happens
(5)Genital (adolescence to adulthood)-sexual desires are re-awakened
Oediapl conflict(Phallic stage)
boy loves his mom and wants to kill off the dad but fears castration, when resolved identify's with dad
girl realized she doesn't have a penis, father has one so she wants to kill mom to have her dad, never goes away (penis envy)
focuses on observable behavior, the keys to understanding development are observable and outside stimuli in the environment
focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world
-focuses on the purposes of consciousness
Vygotskys sociocultural theory
focuses on how culture is transmitted to the next generation, socially mediated process, influenced in the study of cognitive development
-Freud, behaviors are motivated by unconscious desires
-desires are represented by animalistic drives(hunger, sex, aggression)
specific times during development in which a particular event has its greatest consequence
-embroyic period of pregnancy is the most critical period
particular times when an organism is susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environment
-ethology=critical periods and sensitive periods
-evolutionary developmental psychology=adaptive value to the species, we survived because of our past generations
Eriksons psychosocial stages
1.trust vs mistrust(birth-1)
2.autonomy vs shame and doubt(1-3)
3.initiative vs guilt(3-6)
4.industry vs diffusion(6-11)
5.identity vs. confusion(adolescence)
6.intimacy vs. isolation(young adulthood)
7.generativity vs stagnation(middle adulthood)
8. ego integrity vs despair(late adulthood)
The degree to which a developing behavior or physical structure is modifiable, and is the developing brain's ability for myeli-nation and the formation of neural pathways.
encompasses any factor that is produced by the predetermined unfolding of genetic information
is a type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response. It explains how we learn emotional responses.- John B. Watson(behaviorist)
is a form of learning in which a response is strengthened or weakened, depending on whether the environmental consequences that follow the behavior are pleasant or aversive.-B. F. Skinner(behaviorist)
-worked with rats and pigeons
humanistic psychology; hierarchy of needs
1. Life essentials: food, water, air
2. safety and security: safety, freedom of free, stability
3. Belonging and love: love, acceptance, affection
4. Achievement and prestige: approval, recognition, self-esteem
5. Aesthetic needs: beauty, order, symmetry
6. Self-actualization: maximizing ones potential, sense of satisfaction and enthusiasm for life
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