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Freud's psychoanalytic theory

suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior. According to Freud, one's personality has three aspects: ID, Superego, ego


the raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality that is present at birth. Operates according to the pleasure principle, in which the goal is immediate reduction of tension and maximization of satisfaction.
-devil unconscious


the part of personality that is rational and reasonable. Operates on the reality principle, in which instinctual energy is restrained in order to maintain the safety of the individual and help integrate the person into society.
-you reality


the aspect of personality that represents a person's conscience, incorporating distinctions between right and wrong. Develops around age 5 or 6 and is acquired through interactions from
-angel right and wrong

Freud's psychosexual stages

series of stages that children pass through in which gratification is obtained through a particular biological function and body part.
(1)Oral (birth to 12-18 months)-most sensitive period, if over indulged children become fixated
(2)Anal (12-18 months to 3 years)-centered around anal region,
(3)Phallic (3 to 5-6 years)-centered around gential region
(4)Latency (5-6 years to adolescence)-nothing interesting happens
(5)Genital (adolescence to adulthood)-sexual desires are re-awakened

Oediapl conflict(Phallic stage)

boy loves his mom and wants to kill off the dad but fears castration, when resolved identify's with dad

Electra Conflict(Phallic

girl realized she doesn't have a penis, father has one so she wants to kill mom to have her dad, never goes away (penis envy)

Father of Psychoanalysis

Sigmund Freud

Behavioral Perspective

focuses on observable behavior, the keys to understanding development are observable and outside stimuli in the environment

cognitive perspective

focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world
-focuses on the purposes of consciousness

Vygotskys sociocultural theory

focuses on how culture is transmitted to the next generation, socially mediated process, influenced in the study of cognitive development

Psychodynamic perspective

-Freud, behaviors are motivated by unconscious desires
-desires are represented by animalistic drives(hunger, sex, aggression)

continuous change

development s gradual

discontinuous change

development occurs in distinct stages or steps

critical period

specific times during development in which a particular event has its greatest consequence
-embroyic period of pregnancy is the most critical period

sensitive period

particular times when an organism is susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environment


traits, abilities and capabilities inherited from ones parents(born with it)


environmental influences that shape behavior(your experiences)

evolutionary perspective

-ethology=critical periods and sensitive periods
-evolutionary developmental psychology=adaptive value to the species, we survived because of our past generations

Eriksons psychosocial stages vs mistrust(birth-1)
2.autonomy vs shame and doubt(1-3)
3.initiative vs guilt(3-6)
4.industry vs diffusion(6-11)
5.identity vs. confusion(adolescence)
6.intimacy vs. isolation(young adulthood)
7.generativity vs stagnation(middle adulthood)
8. ego integrity vs despair(late adulthood)


The degree to which a developing behavior or physical structure is modifiable, and is the developing brain's ability for myeli-nation and the formation of neural pathways.


encompasses any factor that is produced by the predetermined unfolding of genetic information

Classical conditioning

is a type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response. It explains how we learn emotional responses.- John B. Watson(behaviorist)
-baby Albert

Operant conditioning

is a form of learning in which a response is strengthened or weakened, depending on whether the environmental consequences that follow the behavior are pleasant or aversive.-B. F. Skinner(behaviorist)
-worked with rats and pigeons

Carol Rogers

-believed in giving unconditional positive regard

Abraham Maslow

humanistic psychology; hierarchy of needs
1. Life essentials: food, water, air
2. safety and security: safety, freedom of free, stability
3. Belonging and love: love, acceptance, affection
4. Achievement and prestige: approval, recognition, self-esteem
5. Aesthetic needs: beauty, order, symmetry
6. Self-actualization: maximizing ones potential, sense of satisfaction and enthusiasm for life

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