Carbon dioxide retentionA condition characterized by a chronically high blood level of carbon dioxide in which the respiratory center no longer responds to high blood levels of carbon dioxide.carbon monoxidea odorless, colorless, tasteless, and highly poisonous gas that results from incomplete oxidation of carbon in combustion.chronic bronchitisIrritation of the major lung passageways from infectious disease or irritants such as smoke.chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)A slow process of dilation and disruption of the airways and alveoli caused by chronic bronchial obstruction.Continous positive airway pressure (CPAP)A method of ventilation used primarily in the treatment of critically ill patients with respiratory distress; can prevent the need for endotracheal intubation.CracklesCrackling, rattling breath sounds signaling fluid in the air spaces of the lungs; formerly called rales.CroupAn inflammatory disease of the upper respiratory system that may cause a partial airway obstruction and is characterized by a barking cough; usually seen in children.DiphtheriaAn infectious disease in which a membrane forms, lining the pharynx; this lining can severely obstruct the passage of air into the larynx.DsypneaShortness of breath or difficulty breathing.EmbolusA blood clot or other substance in the circulatory system that travels to a blood vessel where it causes a blockage.EmphysemaA disease of the lungs in which there is extreme dilation and eventual destruction of the pulmonary alveoli with poor exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide; it is one form of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.EpiglottisA disease in which the epiglottis becomes inflamed and enlarged and may cause an upper airway obstruction.Hay feverAn allergic response usually to outdoor airborne allergens such as pollen or sometimes indoor allergens such as dust mites or pet dander; also called allergic rhinitis.HyperventilationRapid or deep breathing that lowers the blood carbon dioxide level below normal.Hyperventilation syndrome (panic attack)This syndrome occurs in the absence of other physical problems. The respirations of a person who is experiencing hyperventilation syndrome may be as high as 40 shallow breaths/min or as low as only 20 very deep breaths/min.Hypoxiaa condition in which the body's cells and tissues do not have enough oxygenhypoxic driveA condition in which chronically low levels of oxygen in the blood stimulate the respiratory drive; seen in patients with chronic lung diseases.influenza type AVirus that has crossed the animal/human barrier and has infected humans, recently reaching a pandemic level with the H1N1 strain.metered-dose inhaler (MDI)A miniature spray canister used to direct medications through the mouth and into the lungs.Orthopneasevere dyspnea in which breathing is very difficult in any position other than sitting erect or standingOxygenationthe process of delivering oxygen to the bloodPandemicAn outbreak that occurs on a global scale.paroxysmal nocturnal dyspneaSevere shortness of breath, especially at night after several hours of reclining; the person is forced to sit up to breathe.Pertussis (whooping cough)An airborne bacterial infection that affects mostly children younger than 6 years. Patients will be feverish and exhibit a "whoop" sound on inspiration after a coughing attack; highly contagious through droplet infection.pleural effusionA collection of fluid between the lung and chest wall that may compress the lung.Pleuric Chest PainSharp, stabbing pain in the chest that is worsened by a deep breath or other chest wall movement; often caused by inflammation or irritation of of the pleura.pneumoniaAn infectious disease of the lung that damages lung tissue.pneumothoraxA partial or complete accumulation of air in the pleural space.Pulmonary edemaA buildup of fluid in the lungs, usually as a result of congestive heart failure.RespirationThe exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)A virus that causes an infection of the lungs and breathing passages; can lead to other serious illnesses that affect the lungs or heart, such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. RSV is highly contagious and spread through droplets.rhoniciCoarse breath sounds heard in patients with chronic mucus in the airways,small-volume nebulizerA respiratory device that holds liquid medicine that is turned into a fine mist. The patient inhales the medication into the airways and lungs as a treatment for conditions such as asthma.StridorA harsh, high-pitches, barking inspiratory sound often heard in acute laryngeal (upper airway) obstruction.Tuberculosis (TB)A disease that can lay dormant in a person's lungs for decades, then reactivate; many strains are resistant to antibiotics. TB is spread by cough.VentilationExchange of air between the lungs and the environment, spontaneously by the patient or with assistance from another person, such as an EMT.vesicular breath soundsNormal breath sounds made by air moving in and out of the alveoli.WheezingA high-pitched, whistling breath sound, characteristically heard on expiration in patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.