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Math
Statistics
STA 296 exam 1 terms and ideas
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Terms in this set (48)
a summary measure that is computed from a sample to describe a characteristic of interest is called
a statistic
a numerical summary of a population is called
a parameter
the average GPA of Harvard's 2007 class is a
(parameter/statistic)
parameter
a survey of 1000 people at a college with 14000 students is a
(parameter/statistic)
statistic
"89% of all UK students take out some kind of loan to pay for college" is a
(parameter/statistic)
parameter
Kennedy's Book store conducts a survey to determine what percent of all UK students plan on selling back their text books after the Fall 2014 semester. 210 students responded to the survey, identify the population parameters
The percent of all UK students plan on selling back their text books
Kennedy's Book store conducts a survey to determine what percent of all UK students plan on selling back their text books after the Fall 2014 semester. 210 students responded to the survey, identify the Sample statistic
The percent of the 210 surveyed students that will sell back their books.
two variables are _________________ if values of one variable tend to be related to the values of the other variable
associated
two variables are __________________ _________________________ if changing the value of one variable influences the value of the other variable
causally associated
an experiment is when you _________________ a certain variable
change
an observational study is when you _____________________ a certain variable
measure
what is an explanatory variable?
what you are varying in your experiment
what is the response variable?
It measures an outcome of a study
What is a confounding variable?
a factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment
what kind of experiments lead to claims of causation?
randomized
a matched pairs experiment is when we have
-how many groups?
-each case gets what kind of treatment?
-how is order assigned?
one group
each case gets both treatments
order is randomly assigned
an alternative matched pairs experiment states that we have
two groups
cases in one group can be paired in some reasonable way with the cases in the other group
the prediction error for an observation is called the
residual
know how to calculate a regression line in calculator
input x values into L1 and y values into L2
stat
calc
8 (linreg a + bx)
enter
a residual value is
given value - predicted value
Among the possible lines that can go through data points in a scatterplot, the regression line results from the least squares method and has the smallest value for the ____________________.
residual sum of squares
does correlation imply causation?
nah
what is correlation?
measures linear relationship between 2 quantitative variables
The closer the correlation coefficient is to 0...
the weaker the relationship
what is the symbol for population mean
μ
what is the symbol for a sample mean
x̄
what does p hat mean
a proportion in a statistic
what does the smaller scripted p symbol mean
a proportion in a population
where is the sampling distribution centered?
the population parameter
if we want a point estimate for a population mean (mu) we use
the same mean (x bar)
if we want a point estimate for a population proportion (fancy p) we use
the sample proportion (p hat)
a skewed left distribution has most of the data pushed to what side of the graph?
right
a skewed right distribution has most of the data pushed to what side of the graph?
left
the standard error of a statistic is the ____________ ____________ of its sampling distribution
standard deviation
margin of error will always be ________ than the standard error
larger
95% confidence level = __________ +/- ME
statistic
95% confidence level = statistic +/- _____ x ______
2xSE
to select a bootstrap sample, we sample with ______________ from the original sample to get a new sample of the ________ __________
with replacement of the same size
t/f: we often use bootstrap distributions as a replacement for sampling distributions
true
we can estimate standard error using the standard _________________ of the bootstrap statistics
deviation
the standard error of a statistic is the _______________ _________________ of its sampling distribution
standard deviation
when you decrease the sample size the CI will
get wider
when you increase the confidence level your intervals will
get wider
when you decrease the Confidence level your intervals will get
narrower
increasing the number of bootstrap samples will
do nothing to the intervals
can there be data in a bootstrap sample that is not in the original data (ie. 12 oranges when there's only 10 oranges in the entire sample you drew from)
no
what is the correlation symbol for a population?
bigger p than the population proportion
what is the correlation symbol for a statistic?
r
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