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Belief one's own culture is superior to any other

Culture Relativism

Position that other cultures have intrinsic worth and can only be evaluated or understood in their own terms

Social Darwinism

Interprets conquest of an inferior society by a superior one as the result of the action of natural law


Classify cultures into series of stages of development according to their relative complexity

Lewis Henry Morgan Theory

Savagery, Barbarism, Civilization


Humans couldn't do anything, then use fire


Domestication of animals, cultivation


Humans develop the alphabet

Edward B. Tylor Theory

Animism, Polytheism, Monotheism


Believe world is full of spirits


Believe in many gods


Believe in only one god

James Frazer Theory

Magic, Religion, and Science

Magic (In James Frazer context)

Try to control the world

Religion (In James Frazer context)

Comfort in religion

Science (In James Frazer context)

Master the world based on rational thinking

Terms of unilineal evolution

Stages, sequences, lower/higher, less advanced/more advanced


Seeing something from a native's point of view


Seeing something outside of natives point of view


Way members of society adapt to their environment and give meaning to their lives

Properties of Culture (7)

Shared, learned, symbolic, adaptive, integrated, transmitted cross-generationally, changes

Culture as sandpile (Conceptualization)

Composite of belief, folklore, material culture, kinship

Study Methods of Culture as a sandpile

Trait listing, inventory-taking, mapping

Believer in Culture as a Sandpile

Franz Boas

Culture as spider web (Conceptualization)

System, different parts are interrelated, major configuration with systematic character, overall structure/pattern

Main concepts of culture as a spider web

Enculteration, deviance, personality

Believer of culture as a spider web

Margaret Mead

Culture as Machine (Conceptualization)

Culture provides learned behaviors, cooperative patterns and social institutions that make need fulfillment possible

Believer in Culture as a Machine

Bronislaw Malinowski

Culture as living organism (Conceptualization)

To keep entire social system in a steady state or maintain social equilibrium

Believer in Culture as living organism

A.R. Radcliff-Brown

Problems with Culture as sandpile, spider web, machine, and living organism

-No role for human agency
-Unable to deal with cultural change

Culture as octopus (Conceptualization)

Culture is systematic, admits diversity and contradictions within a culture

Believer of Culture as a octopus

Clifford Geertz

Culture as a Game (Conceptualization)

Culture serves as rules, tactics, and prize setting made by society members

Historical definition of culture

Social heritage, tradition, passed on future generations

Behavioral definition of culture

Shared, learned behavior, way of life

Functional definition of culture

Way humans solve problems of adapting environment

Normative definition of culture

Culture is ideas, values, or rules for living

Symbolic definition of culture

Culture based on assigned meanings that are shared by society

First generation anthropologist methods of ethnographic research

Recording, Description, Mapping

Structured interview

Specific questions (questionnaire) that collects demographic, economic, and genealogies of a group data

Unstructured Interview

Open-ended questions

Who personalized the idea of Participant Observation?

Bronislaw Malinowski

Basic Elements of Participant Observation (5)

Researcher must live close to people they study, interact with them on daily basis, stay for long period of time, learn group's language, write field notes of diary

Difficulties of fieldwork

Overcome entry barrier, developing a rapport, identifying reliable informants

Where did Bronislaw study?

Trobriand Islands

Who was a believer in functionalism?

Bronislaw Malinowski

What was an important aspect of the people on the Trobriand Islands


What was the Kula?

The exchange process between the Trobriand people where they exchange necklaces and bracelets

Cross cultural comparison steps (3)

Hypothesis, choose sample of societies and study ethnographies, analyze data statistically

Problems of Cross Cultural Comparison

Researcher's bias, isolation in sampling, examining data a-historically

Materialistics (3)

Anthropology is sciences, technology is most important cultural aspect, humans must adapt to conditions in natural environment

Focus of Materialistics

Similarities of different cultures


Anthro is humanistic field, human needs can be satisfied in many ways, treat cultures like "texts" rather than things

Emphasis of Idealists

Uniqueness of culture

Meaning of Culture is a Text (3)

Culture is a text composed of symbols, anthropologist is the reader of the text, find causal relationship

Who promotes the dictionary method?


What is the Dictionary method

Dictionary explains meanings of words in terms of other words, only if one knows the meaning of many words in a dictionary can they use it to decipher the meaning of unknown words


Observable physical characteristics that distinguish females and males


Cultural construction of beliefs and behaviors considered appropriate for each sex

Women's Gender Norms (2)

Motherhood, marriage

Men's Gender Norms (5)

Not being a sissy, successful, strong (self reliant), aggressive, be a stud

Agents of Gender Norms

Parents, mass medium, teachers, peers

What is Tourism?

Social practice that combines recreation with business

Who are tourists?

Travelers who value "life-style" more than occupation as basis of social status and self identity

What is a traveler?

Travel means work, trouble and torment

What is a tourist?

Travel's something to enjoy

What is the focus of industrial society?

Production, accumulation, work

What is the focus of Post industrial society?

Consumption and lifestyle

What makes tourism work? (5)

Leisure time, disposable income, travel ethic (motivation), commodification of culture, and modern technologies

What is the equation for Tourism?

Leisure+ Discretionary Income+ Motivations

Types of tourists? (3)

Organized, individual mass tourists, backpackers

What is an organized tourist?

Mass tourists (resorts and beaches)

What is an individual mass tourist?

Arrange own itinerary

Where does motivation to travel come from?

Authenticity, real experiences

Impacts of Mass tourism (4)

Forced to meet needs of tourists, dramatic and disruptive cultural change, dependency on tourists and industry, environmental damage

What should new tourists be? (4)

Sensible, sensitive, sophisticated, sustainable

What is globalization?

International movement of capital, people, and cultural ideas

What does it mean to not be globalized?

Fruits of globalization aren't shared (prosperity, travel, migration, technology, democracy)

What advancements were made in 1890-1914 globalization?

Telegraph, automobile, steamboat, airplane

Why do other scholars argue globalization took place in 16th century?

Started with the rise of capitalism

What was stage 1 of rise of capitalism (3)

Destruction of European feudalism, Creation of system of world trade, creation of colonies and slave based production

What is capitalism

Economic system dominated by supply-demand price mechanism called market

What is the key metaphor for capitalism?

Commodity (has to have price tag)

What is the modernization theory?

American model- political stability and economic prosperity

What is the path of the modernization theory?

Apply science and technology to mass production, rational management of resources, democratize social system

What did modernization theory create?

New hierarchies of social development (2nd world, 3rd world), it wasn't racist but ethnographic, and cultural imperialism

What is inequality?

Extent to which valued materials and social rewards are given disproportionately to individuals, families, and groups

What are the dimensions of social stratification?

Economic status/wealth, power status, prestige

What is class?

All people in a given society who have different degrees of wealth, power, and prestige

What is the functional theory of inequality?

If no reward, highly talented people will have no incentive to work hard. There should be differences in reward to those who are more successful

What is the conflict theory of inequality?

Stratification isn't beneficial to all society, only the elite who use wealth to influence the passing of laws thath benefit themselves

Who believed in the conflict theory of inequality?

Karl Marx

What is Marxism

School of social theory

What did Marx believe was the order of class struggle for humans?

Slavery- Feudalism- Capitalist- Communist

Cultural Relativism

PRactice of attempting to understand cultures within their contexts


Description of culture based on written records, interviews, and archaeology


Searched for cultural laws in relationships among kinships, religion, and politics

Sapir- Whorf hypothesis

Early 20th century, language plays critical role in way people understand the world because of the way we talk about it

Social differentiation

Access of individual and groups to basic material resources, wealth, power and prestige

Egalitarian societies

no individual is denied access to resources

What are bands?

Foragers, egalitarian, reciprocity

What are tribes?

Horticulturalists or herders, egalitarian,

What are chiefdoms?

Rank societies characterized by chief, redistribution, horticulturalists and herders


Series of political and economic policies promoting free trade, individual initiative, and minimum government regulation of economy

Who was a representative for cultural relativism?

Franz Boas


System of meanings and values which are expression or projection of a particular group's interest

Role of Ideology (3)

Legitimizing existing order, mediating contradictions, mystifying sources of exploitation and inequality in society

Ideological Domination (3)

Common sense values, take-for-granted, consensus building

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