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Basic Chemistry Review
Terms in this set (46)
It takes about 25 of the 92 naturally occurring elements found on earth to. create living matter. Of those name the four that make up 96% of living matter.
Nitrogen, Carbon, Oxygen, and Hydrogen
Name the five trace elements that are found in humans and other vertebrates
Iodine, Manganese, Fluorine, Zinc, and Iron
Atoms of various elements different in their number of subatomic ______________
Since protons and neutrons are almost identical in their mass each has a mass of about 1 _____________
All atoms of one type of element have the same number of _________________ in their nucleus.
An ________ is the smallest unit of an element that still retains the properties of the element.
Atomic number indicates the number of __________ in the nucleus of an atom. The _________ number indicates the number of neutrons plus ______________ in the nucleus of an atom.
protons, mass (atomic mass), protons
Carbon has an atomic number of 6 and a mass number of 12. From this we know that Carbon has approximately ____ Daltons.
If an element differs in the number of neutrons we know that it must be an ____________
If an atom absorbs sufficient energy then it is possible that an ___________ may move to another shell layer that is farther from the _____________
Neon has a full outer shell layer so we can say that it has ____ (#) electrons in its outer electron shell and that it is _______ or chemically unreactive
Because lithium has an atomic number of three it is possible to predict that Lithium has 3 ____________ and 3 ___________
Draw electron configuration for an atom of Nitrogen (Include Protons and Neutrons in the nucleus)
Draw electron configuration for an atom of Neon (Include Protons and Neutrons in the nucleus)
The reactivity of an atom depends on the presence of unpaired ___________ in the outer valence shell of an atom
How many electrons does hydrogen have?
1 (look at the bottom for protons / electrons: Atomic Number)
How many protons does nitrogen have?
7 (look at the bottom for protons / electrons: Atomic Number)
What is the atomic number of carbon?
6 (look at the bottom for protons / electrons: Atomic Number)
What is the mass number of oxygen?
16 (look at the top for mass number)
Formula to calculate neutrons
Mass Number - Atomic Number = Neutrons
What is another name for the number of protons and electrons in an element?
What is the maximum number of electrons in the 1S orbital of Hydrogen?
What is the maximum number of electrons in a 2P orbital of any atom?
A ___________ bond forms when the other-shell electrons of two atoms are shared so as to satisfactorily fill the outer electron shells of both atoms.
When atoms share electrons pairs they can create a __________ (answer is not a type of bond) (non-polar covalent)
What is the maximum number of bonds an atom with the atomic number of 7 can make with Hydrogen
When CO2 is formed what is the total number of outer electrons that are shared between the carbon atom and the oxygen atoms?
Because nitrogen is slightly electronegative and hydrogen is not what will be the partial charge on the hydrogens when NH3 is formed?
If two atoms are ___________________ they can interact to form non-polar covalent bonds
An unequal sharing of electrons between atoms is known as a ________________ covalent bond and is often found within a molecule of ____________
If two atoms like sodium and chlorine form a bond one atom transfers its electron to the other forming an _________ bond (electron attraction). When sodium chloride is formed as a result ___________ gains an electron from _________ ____
ionic, chlorine, sodium (na)
Cations have a net charge of ___________
Anions have a net charge of __________
What type of bond is it when two water molecules are attracted to one another?
When water is formed Oxygen has a slight _________ charge and the hydrogens have a slight _________ charge
Cohesion, adhesion, and surface tension of water molecules are caused by _________________ bonding
A water strider can walk on the surface of a pond due to ____________________ of water.
Water's property of ________________________ is mainly a consequence of the absorption and release of heat when hydrogen bonds break and form.
high specific heat
__________________ bonds must be broken for water to vaporize
Water is at its densest at _____ degrees Celsius. Ice floats in water because of its crystalline structure where it bonds with a maximum of four other water molecules. What bond holds them together?
4, evaporative coolant
Based on your knowledge of the polarity of water molecules, what is the charge of Cl-?
Based on your knowledge of the polarity of water molecules, what is the charge of Na+?
Oil is _____________- or non-polar because it repels water molecules. It is not charged so it is not attracted to water.
If i have a substance with a pH of 2 is it acidic or basic? Does it have more hydroxide or hydrogen ions?
If a substance has a pH of 7 it is ____________ and a substance with a pH of 13 has more _____________ ions.
Buffer solutions maintain a relative _______________ pH, donate _____ to a solution when they have been depleted, and accept ________ when they are in excess.
Constant, H+, H+
Recommended textbook explanations
Chemistry: Matter & Change, Florida
Chemistry Matter and Change (California)
Dingrando, Gregg, Hainen, Wistrom
Foundations of Physical Science (Florida Edition)
Tom C. Hsu
Interactive Science: Physical Science
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